- वैश्य जातियों की सूची
- वैश्य शासक
- वैश्य कवि और साहित्यकार
- वैश्य उद्योगपति
- वैश्य शहीद एवं क्रांतिकारी
- वैश्य राजनेता
- वैश्य संत और महापुरुष
- वैश्य समाज से सम्बंधित वेब साईट
- वैश्यों के बारे में कुछ लेख
- वैश्य समाज के तीर्थ स्थान , देवता व कुलदेविया
- वैश्य संस्थान, महाविद्यालय, धर्मशालाए
- वैश्य गौरव
- वैश्य खिलाड़ी
- वैश्य इतिहास
- वैश्य गाथा
- वैश्य कलाकार
- वैश्य पत्रकार
- वैश्य पत्र एवं पत्रिकाए
- वैश्य समाचार
- वैश्य प्रशासनिक अधिकारी-मंत्री-सामंत-सेनापति
- प्रमुख वैश्य व्यक्तित्व
- वैश्य जातियों के गोत्र, कुलदेवी, देवता
Saturday, June 15, 2013
पुश्यगुप्त - PUSHYAGUPTA
बोद्ध साहित्य एवं अशोक के अभिलेखों से स्पष्ट होता हैं कि मौर्य साम्राज्य अनेक प्रान्तों में विभक्त था, और राजकुल के राजकुमार ही प्रायः उनके राज्यपाल हुआ करते थे. रुद्रादमन (१५० ई) के जूनागढ़ अभिलेख से पता चलता हैं कि चंद्र गुप्त मौर्य ने सौराष्ट्र (गुजरात) को अपने साम्राज्य का एक प्रांत बनाया था. और वंहा एक प्रान्तपति नियुक्त किया था जो कि वैश्य वंश का था, जिसका नाम पुष्य गुप्त था. जो कि चंद्रगुप्त का बहनोई था. उसने वंहा जनता के हित के लिए विशाल सुदर्शन झील का निर्माण कराया था. (मौर्यस्य राज्ञः चन्द्रगुप्तस्य राश्त्रियेन् वैश्येन् पुश्य्गुप्तेन् कारितः)
अतः स्पष्ट है कि पुश्यगुप्त मौर्य साम्राज्य के सौराष्ट्र प्रांत का राज्यपाल था.
साभार: प्राचीन भारत में वैश्य समुदाय कि स्थिति और उसकी भूमिका
Friday, June 14, 2013
Gujarat Vanis include the two divisions of Vadnagari and Visnagari Vanis, and claim descent from the Vaishyas, the third of the four traditional Hindu tribes. The names in common use among men arc Damodardas, Dwarkadas, Haridas, Krishnadas, Madhavdas, Prabhudas, Vallabhdas, Vishnudas, Vithaldas and Uttamdas; and among women Bhagirthibai, Jamnabai, Krishnabai, Kaveribai, Motibai, Rakhamabai, Sundarabai and Vithabai. They have no surnames. Their family-god is Vyankatesh or Balaji of Tirupati. Some are Vadnagars and others Visnagars from the towns of those names in north Gujarat. All in the district are said to belong to the Vishe division of these two classes. The two classes eat together but do not inter-marry. As a rule they are wheat-coloured, regular and delicate-featured and weak, the women being fairer than the men. Their home-tongue is Gujarati, but out-of-doors they speak Marathi. They are religious, worshipping all Brahmanic gods and keeping all Hindu fasts and feasts. Their family-gods are Balaji or Vyankoba of Tirupati in North Arkot and Vithoba of Pandharpur, and they make pilgrimages to the leading Hindu sacred places. Their priest is a Gujarati Brahman, and in his absence a Deshasth Brahman is asked to officiate at their marriage and death ceremonies. They belong to the Vallabhacharya sect. Every male and female should receive religious instruction from the teacher and repeat the verse or mantra which the teacher whispers into the ear of the initiated. They bow before him and offer him flowers and sandal paste. They believe in sooth-saying and astrology, but profess not to believe in witch-craft, omens or evil spirits. Of the sixteen Brahman ceremonies or sanskars they perform the naming, hair- clipping, marriage, puberty and death ceremonies. The details on each of these occasions differ little from those in use among local Brahmans. When a boy begins to learn to write, he is taken to school on a lucky day with music and a band of friends. In the name of Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, he lays before the slate, flowers, sandal paste, vermilion and turmeric powder, sweetmeats, with betel leaves and nuts and a coconut, and bows to the slate. Packets of sweetmeats are handed among the schoolboys. The teacher makes the boy write Om namas siddham, corrupted into O na ma si dham, that is, Bow to the perfect, and is presented with a roll of betel leaves, nuts and money, and the learning ceremony or Sarasvati pujan is over. Unlike local Brahmans, girls worship the goddess of fortune or mangalagauri before, and never after, they are married. Early marriage is allowed and practised, widow marriage and polygamy are forbidden on pain of loss of caste; polyandry is unknown. They have a caste council and settle social disputes at its meetings. Breaches of caste discipline are punished with fine and the decisions of the council are obeyed on pain of loss of caste.
Gujarat Jains, also called Shravaks. According to their own account they formerly dwelt in Oudh and accepted Jainism along with Bharat, a Solar Kshatriya, the great disciple of Vardhamansvami. They are called Gujars because after leaving Oudh they settled in Gujarat. The names in common use among men and women are the same as those used by Vaishnav Gujars and the men add shetji or master and bhoyiji or brother to their names. Their surnames are Bhandari, Ganchi, Mulavera, Nanavati, Patu, Saraph, Shaha and Vakhariya. Persons bearing the same surnames may not inter-marry. Their home-tongue is Gujarati, and their family-god is Parasnath. They marry among themselves. In appearance and habits they do not differ from Gujar Vanis. They rank with Vaishnav Gujars though neither class eats from the other. They are religious, and they belong to the Digambar sect.
Lad Banis as their name seems to show that they came to Ahmadnagar from south Gujarat whose old name (A.D. 150) was Lad or Lat Desh. The names in common use among men and women do not differ from those used by local Hindus. Their surnames are Balate, Chavan, Cikhale, Chaudhari, Gosavi, Jhare, Karade, Khele, Modi, Paithankar and Shete.
Their family-gods are Devi of Tuljapur, Mahadey of Shingnapur in Satara, and Vithoba of Pandharpur in Sholapur. Their caste deity is Ashapuri or Ashnai near Petlad.
Sameness of family-stock but not sameness of surname is a bar to marriage. They are religious people, worshipping their family and other Brahmanic gods, and visiting holy places. Their priest is a Deshasth/Khedawal Brahman whom, they ask to officiate at their leading ceremonies. Their customs are partly like those of Kunbis and partly like those of Brahmans, except that the texts are in ordinary and not in Vedic Sanskrit. Social disputes are settled at meetings and breaches of social discipline are punished with fines which are generally spent on caste-feasts. Like other Banias they are divided into the Bisa and Dasa groups or 20s and 10s, the Dasa being of irregular descent.
The Marwari is essentially following similar mercantile pursuits to the Vaisya Komati of Peninsular India, and those of the Wani or Bani(a), to which the Komati add that of retail shopkeeping. All the Marwari of Rajputana adhere to the principle of reckoning their descent to a founder, and in their marriage ceremonies they abstain from blodd relationship, never marrying into their own gotra. Their widows never re-marry. The Baniya or Komati merchants and bankers are generally of the Vaishnava sect, but some of them worship Siva. They are most numerous in Telingana (Andhra) and in Madras (Tamil Nadu). They are essentially shopkeepers, sellers of dry grains, cultivation, and mercatile business. The Wani of the Western coast will only marry with the Komati Banya. They are in considerable numbers in the northern Andhra, adjoining Berar. They seem to have come from Telaugana. The names in common use among men are Govinda, Rama, Vishnu and Vithoba; and among women Chima, Ganga, Lakshmi Rama and Yamuna. Their surnames are Bhingarkar, Chhet, Chitte Gandhekar, Konakam, Nimbalkar, Niradkar, Pankar, Sudal, Tanitar and Vadkar. Persons bearing the same surnames cannot inter-marry. Their home-tongue is Telugu, and the family-god is Balaji o Vyankatraman of Tirupati in North Arkot. They are divided into Jana, and Vani Komtis, the Janays weaving and selling sacred thread which the Vani Komtis neither weave nor sell. These two classes eat together but do not inter-marry. There is a third class of Kadu Komtis who eat but do not marry with the other Komtis. They are dark, strong, and flabby, with a round face and small lively eyes. Everyday they lay flowers, sandal pasta and food before the image of Vyankatraman of Tirupati, of Vithoba of Pandharpur, of Devi of Tuljapur, of Ganpati, of Khandoba of Jejur in Pune, and of Maruti, and keep all Hindu fasts and feasts. Their priest is a Telangi Brahman who lives in Pune, and visits their villages once a year, but does not take food at their hands. He officiates at their marriages and receives a yearly tribute in money from each of his followers. In his absence, local Brahmans are asked to take his place at their ceremonies and are much respected. They make pilgrimages to Jejuri in Pune, Pandharpur in Sholapur and Tirupati in North Arkot. They are bound together by a strong caste feeling and settle social disputes, at meeting of caste-men. Smaller breaches of social rules are punished with fine and graver offences are referred to their religious teacher Krishnacharya whose decision is final and is obeyed on pain of loss of caste.
Also Kunams or Kunbi Vanis or Maratha traders. The names in common use among men are Bapu, Balvant, Dhondu, Govind and Rania; and among women, Bhagirathi, Chimani, Ganga, Manu, Sakhi, Salu and Thaki. They add the word shet or merchant to the names of men and bai to the names of women. Their surnames are Avari, Ahir, Bodake, Borule, Dandnaik, Dhavare, Golade, Gujar, Hagvane, Holkar, Jagdale, Kadekar, Kalaskar, Kale, Kasid. Mitkari, Motale, Nandure, Nikam, Pabbore, Pansambal, Sajgure, Sabele, Sadavarte, Todekari, Vaskar,Yevari etc. Persons bearing the same surname cannot inter-marry. Their family-gods are Bahiroba of Sonari in Amadnagar, Devi of Tuljapur and of Rasin in Ahmadnagar, Dayal Malik in the town of Ahmadnagar, Khandoba of Jejuri near Pune, and Vyankatesh of Tirupati in North Arkot. They have two divisions, one which wears and one which does not wear the ling, and who differ in no points except that the ling-wearers rub their brows with cowdung ashes. They eat together and intermarry. They do not differ from local Maratha, Kunbis in appearance or dress. They are a religious people, worshipping all Brahmanic gods and keeping all Hindu fasts and feasts. They almost have equal reverence to Shiv and Vishnu and go on pilgrimage to Alandi, Banaras, Jejuri, Tuljapur and Tirupati. The priest of those who wear the ling is a Jangam, but they also call a Brahman to their chief ceremonies. They are Sampradais or followers of Tukaram who lived in the seventeenth century, wear rosaries of basil beads, and repeat his couplets or abhangs in honour of Vithoba of Pandharpur. Their religious teacher is a devotee of Vithoba and a follower of Tukaram, whom they bow and offer un-cooked food, flower and sandal paste. They worship local gods, and believe in witch-craft, sooth-saying, and spirits, whom they scare by repeating prayers and with the help of Deyrushis or Hindu exorcists. The followers of Tukararn burn their dead and mourn ten days; lingwearers bury with Lingayat rites but hold after-death ceremonies in Brahman fashion. They have a caste council or panch, and settle social disputes at meetings of caste-men under the control of the council. A head-man, called shetya, attends marriages, and the fathers of the bride and bridegroom, groom present him with betel and mark his brow with sandal paste, His office, is hereditary, and traders consult him on trade questions. He fixes the market rates and all members of the community are forbidden to under-sell on pain of fine or loss of caste.
Angane, Ahir, Angre, Avari, Bagrao, Bagwe, Bande, Bhagore, Bhalekar, Bhogale, Bhoite, Bhorate, Bhoware, Bodake, Borule, Dabhade, Dadhe, Dalvi, Dandnaik, Darbare, Devkate, Dhamale, Dhamdhere, Dhavare, Dhawle, Dhekale, Dhone, Dhumak or Dhumal, Dhybar, Dige, Gaikwad, Gavane (or Gavase), Ghatge, Golade, Gujar, Hagvane, Harane, Harphale, Holkar, Jagdale, Jagdhane, Kakde,Kadekar, Kalaskar, Kale, Kank, Kasid, Khadtare, Khaire, Kokate, Kshirsagar, Lokhande, Madhure, Mahadik, Mahakule, Malap, Malusare, Mane, Mhambar, Misal, Mitkari, Mohite, Motale, Nalwade, Nandure, Nikam, Pabbore, Palande, Pansambal, Parte (or Pathare or Phadtare), Phakde, Phalke, Pingale, Pudhare, Rasal, Renuse, Sabele, Sadavarte, Sajgure, Sambhare, Shankpal, Shirke, Shitole, Surve, Tawde, Teje, Thorat, Thote, Todekari,Ubale, Varade, Vaskar, Vichare, Wagh and Yevari.
Marwar is a place in Rajputana, from where we have Marwari Rajputs, Marwari Brahmins, Marwari Banias, etc. Out of the 128 merchant Marwari sub-castes in Rajasthan (that Todd counted), only five became big and prominent in Indian national commerce. These were the Maheshwaris, Oswals, Aggarwals, Porwals and Khandelwals.
Marwaris vanias include the Mahajans, Maheshwaris, Oswals, Aggarwals, Sarawagis, Por(w)als or Porwar, Shrimals, Shrishrimals, Vijayvargias, Sunlas, Bohres, Pheriwalas, Baldias and Lohias, Khandelwal, Padmavati Purval, Lamechu, Chaturth, Pancham, Bagherwal, Shetwal, etc.
In addition there are the Orwals, Mohnots, Singhis, Lodhas and Mohatas, Saukar, Sarraff or Shroff, Banya Komati, Modi grianseller etc. whose members are in the field of business, industry and administration.
The Marwari arrange themselves into 12 tribes: the Mestri, the Urwar, Agarwal, Bijabargi, Sarogi and Oswa(l), Kandalwal, Neddatwar, and Porwal, etc. These all are divided into numerous kap or clans; in the Mahessar tribe alone are 72, amongst whom are the Rathi and Dhaga. These whealthy bankers and merchants, scattered throughout India, are all known under the denomination of Marwari, which means belonging to Maru or Marusthan, the desert. It is singular, Colonel Tod adds (Rajasthan, ii. P. 234), that the wealth of India should centre in this region of comparative sterility.
Saturday, June 8, 2013
बेटियों के लिए वह गट्सी मॉम (साहसी मां) हैं, तो पति के लिए साधारण जीवन जीने वाली असाधारण महिला, लेकिन समर्थक उन्हें जमशेदपुर की माउंटिनियर मॉम (पर्वतारोही मां) कहना ज्यादा पसंद करते हैं। वाकई जिस समाज में 40 वर्ष पार कर चुकी महिला अमूमन ′बुजुर्ग′ मानी जाती है और उनकी निर्भरता घर के पुरुष सदस्यों पर बढ़ जाती है, वहां उम्र के पचास वसंत देख चुकी प्रेमलता अग्रवाल अगर सेवन समिट्स (दुनिया के सातों महाद्वीप की सबसे ऊंची चोटियां) की फतह का इतिहास रचती हैं, तो उनकी उपलब्धि पर इतराना स्वाभाविक है। यह सफलता इसलिए भी खास है, क्योंकि इससे पहले कोई भारतीय महिला यह उपलब्धि हासिल नहीं कर पाई थी। दुनिया की सबसे ऊंची चोटी एवरेस्ट पर तिरंगा फहराने वाली भारत की सबसे उम्रदराज महिला का रिकॉर्ड भी प्रेमलता के ही नाम है।
पद्मश्री से सम्मानित प्रेमलता को पर्वतों से प्यार बचपन में ही हो गया था। तब दार्जिलिंग की पहाड़ी वादियां उन्हें खूब लुभाती थीं और वह अपने छोटे कदमों से पहाड़ नापने निकल पड़ती थीं। पर जमशेदपुर का सपाट मैदान ससुराल क्या बना, पहाड़ की गोद में खेलने की आदतें पीछे छूट गईं। अलबत्ता करीब दस वर्ष पूर्व घर-बच्चों की जिम्मेदारी घटनी शुरू हुई, तो इच्छाएं फिर से जीवित हो उठीं। पर्वतारोही बनने के उनके फैसले को पत्रकार पति और ससुरालवालों ने जरूर हाथोंहाथ लिया, फिर भी बढ़ती उम्र उनकी राह में रुकावट-जैसी थी। एवरेस्ट फतह को याद करते हुए प्रेमलता ने एक इंटरव्यू में कहा है, ′जब मैं बेस कैंप पहुंची, तो मिशन का नेतृत्व कर रहे शेरपा का पहला वाक्य यही था कि तुम इस मिशन पर क्यों आई हो? तुम चोटी तक नहीं पहुंच पाओगी।′ लेकिन जैसा कि पिता रामवतार गर्ग कहते हैं, उनकी बेटी जो ठान लेती है, उसे जरूर पूरा करती है। यही जिद प्रेमलता को विश्व की सबसे ऊंची चोटी तक ले गई, जबकि राह में मौसम ने तो रुकावटें डाली ही, दस्तानों के गुम होने से भी दिक्कतें आईं।
बछेंद्री पाल के मार्गदर्शन में प्रेमलता ने आज दुनिया नाप ली है, पर उन्हें खुद से बड़ी उपलब्धि अरुणिमा की लग रही है, जिसने विकलांगता को पीछे छोड़ते हुए एवरेस्ट की सफल चढ़ाई की। अब उनका सपना अपनी दो अन्य जिम्मेदारियों को पूरा करना है-पहला, महिलाओं, खासकर आदिवासी महिलाओं को पर्वतारोहण का प्रशिक्षण देना, और दूसरा, छोटी बेटी की शादी कर मां का कर्तव्य पूरा करना।
एवरेस्ट की चढ़ाई के लिए जब वह बेस कैंप पहुंची, तो उन्हें यही सुनना पड़ा कि बढ़ती उम्र के कारण वह चोटी तक नहीं पहुंच पाएंगी।
साभार : अमरउजाला