Tuesday, December 27, 2011

माथुर वैश्य-MATHUR VAISHYA


Mathur Vaishya

MathurVaishya (Hindi: माथुरवैश्य), is a sub-caste of Vaishya, a Hindu caste. They are also referred as Mathuria (Vaishya).

Origins

According to the Hindu theology, Lord Brahma, the Creator, created the four Varnas. Also as per the oldest mention of the varna system in the Purusha sukta of Rigveda 10.90.12, "... his two thighs were theVaishya, ... born". According to the Indian caste system, Vanika (Sanskrit) or Bania (Hindi) is a trader or merchant belonging to the business class. They are also referred to as Vaishya. Yellow color is associated with Vaishya. Gupta is the most widely used surname of Vaishya.

History

The Mathuria Vaishya sub-caste of the Vaishya were a part of trading community in Mathura until around 1018 CE. During the ancient period, Mathura was an economic hub, located at the junction of some relatively important caravan routes. Mathura had historical links with Bateshwar, which is also located on the banks of river Yamuna. Bateshwar was founded by the king Śũrasena grandfather of lord Krishna according to legends. River Yamuna flow around Bateshwar in shape of Bel Patra (Aegle marmelos).

According to history, Mahmud Ghaznavi destroyed and plundered the temple city of Thanesar and massacred its inhabitants in 1014 CE. Mahmud Ghaznavi's army brought to Ghazni 20,000 captives, and much wealth. Then, in 1018, when the news of his imminent attack on Mathura broke out, panic spread in the city, causing mass migration from city of Mathura. One group of the business community (approximately 100 families) rushed to escape southwards along the bank of River Yamuna (about 100 km journey) to Bateshwar (and surrounding area Bah, Jarar). These migrants from Mathura came to be known as Mathuria Vaishya (Vaishya, who came from Mathura), who were named as Mathur Vaishya in British census. Mathur Vaishya have no connection with the Mathur (including so called Mathur Merchants) sub-caste of Kayastha, as well as Mathuria from other Varna apart from sharing the same ancestral homeland in the Mathura kingdom. Mathuria Vaishya used to wear the sacred thread, which is the mark of the Dwija or twice-born.

Since Mathur Vaishya were forced by circumstances to leave most of their belongings back home in Mathura, most of them became poor. They could not retrieve their belongings afterwards, as almost the whole city was burned to earth by the invaders. They restarted their lives with small business opportunities. With the passage of time and broadening of opportunities, they followed other professions along with trading. Some of them moved to nearby village Samugarh (across the river Uttagan), now known as Fatehabad. Over time, the migration range widened to nearby villages Pinahat, IradatNagar andShamsabad. During early part of British period (1804-1858 CE), Mathur Vaishya took further steps in migration and moved beyond the northern bank of Yamuna (Shikohabad, Chandwar Nagar, Sirsaganj) and the southern bank of the Chambal (Ambah, Porsa, Morena) & south-west of ephemeral rivers Parbati / Banganga / Uttagan & Gambhiri / Khari-nadi (Dholpur, Mania).

Present conditions

Chandwar Nagar is located on bank of river Yamuna and is south of current Firozabad city. Mathur Vaishya left Chandwar Nagar (only area of their homeland, where they deserted in toto) because of dacoits problem. With the introduction of railways, Mathur Vaishya also migrated to big cities like Kanpur, Kolkata, Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, Hyderabad. Now they are spread all over India and some abroad too.

The Mathur Vaishya population is still well below a million. Firozabad has highest Mathur Vaishya population, followed by Agra. Most of the Mathur Vaishya in Firozabad are associated with the glass bangles business. In Firozabad, Mathur Vaishya are also referred to as Mathuria. Mr. Russel mentions that subcastes are of the usual local or territorial type, as ... Mathuria, and so on.. Most of Mathur Vaishya use Gupta as their surname, while others write their gotra as surname.

The Mathur Vaishya speak Hindi or BrajBhasha, a dialect of Hindi spoken by people who evolved around the banks of Yamuna river. . Mathur Vaishya have traditionally been strictly vegetarian and non-alcoholic, though some have changed in the modern times. Mathur Vaishya worship deities Rama, Krishana, Shiva,Hanuman, Durga, Ganesha & amp; Laxmi. Mathur Vaishya used to (even now) make a visit to the Mata KAILA devi temple at Karauli, Rajasthan to obtain blessing of Kuldevi after an auspicious occasion.

Distinct features about Mathur Vaishya, unlike some other vaishya communities are:

a) Mathur Vaishya's initial migration from their home land was invariably to the big cities.

b) Mathur Vaishya did not adopt or convert to other religions (including Jainism), despite surrounding areas under severe influence.

c) Mathur Vaishya preferred wholesale nature of business instead of retail.

d) The clan (exogomus division, also known as Gotra in non-Brahamin) nomenclature was derived from trading business of family's head in Mathura.

Aloo (Potato) Ka Rasa is an integral part of dinner meal, and cooked at least once a week in Mathuria Vaishya's home (probably exclusively). Aloo Ka Rasa is basically a Sour Yoghurt based Indian curry or gravy primarily consisting of a sour yoghurt and water base thickened with boiled Potato. Various herbs and spices (Turmeric powder, Corainder leaves, Cumin seed etc.) are added to the 'Rasa' to give it a very distinct flavour.
Clan System

Mathuria Vaishya ancestors in Mathura were wholesale traders, who were engaged in businesses of Food items, Cloth, Kitchen Wares, Gold, Medicines, Health Supplements, Beauty Care products, Building Material, Wood, Plant Leaves, Arms. Hence, the clan system was derived to preserve identity of family tree. Few more clan increased, as bigger clans got sub-divided. The comedy of error (mis-spellings) also helped to add few more clans. People from same clan were Gotriya brother & sistser. Later, Khandan was defined as seven contiguous generations through unbroken male siblings of a clan.

गोत्र 

Annawaria, Hindi: अनवरिया 

अthabariya, Hindi:अठबरिया / अठबैया 

Arabhariya, Hindi: अरबहरया 

Akharwar, Hindi:अखरवार 

अlampuria, Hindi: अलापुरिया / आलमपुरिया  

Etiwar, Hindi: ऐतिवार 
 
Oahawar, Hindi: ओहावार 

Auriya, Hindi: औरिया 

Theksere, Hindi: ेकसेरे 

Pengoria, Hindi: पैंगोरिया 

Pachadhari, Hindi: पचाधरी 

Panwaria, Hindi:पनबरिया 

Paroliya, Hindi: पारौलिया 

Panniwar, Hindi: पन्नीवार 

Pipraiya, Hindi: पिपरैया 

Suraiya, Hindi: सुरैया 

Sanwasit, Hindi: संवासित 

Sujanpuria, Hindi:सुजानपुरिया 

Sudaisak, Hindi: सुदैसक 

Senkda, Hindi: सेंकड़ा 

Soni, Hindi: सोनी 

Sandilya, Hindi: साडिल्य 

Samasin, Hindi: समासिन 

Sakriwar, Hindi:साकरीवार 


Shanichara, Hindi: शनिचरा 

Shalya, Hindi: शल्या 

Shiroiya, Hindi: शिरोइया 

Shambashah, Hindi:शम्भाशाह 

Raipuria, Hindi: रैपुरिया 

Rainguriya, Hindi: रैनगुरिया 

Rampuria, Hindi: रमपुरिया 

Rainduha, Hindi: रैदेहुआ 

Ramberiya, Hindi: रामबेरिया 

Revadi, Hindi: रेवाड़ी 

Bagula, Hindi: बगुला 

Baraiya, Hindi: बरैया 

Bagbular, Hindi: बगबुलार 

Bachharwar, Hindi:बछरवार 
 
Balaiwar, Hindi: बलाईवार 

Bansalas, Hindi: बंसलवार 

Bariwar, Hindi: बारीवार 

Basoriya, Hindi: बासोरिया 

Babarpuria, Hindi:बाबरपुरिया 

Bandesiya, Hindi:बन्देसिया 

Badlas, Hindi: बादलस 

Bamaniya, Hindi:बामनियां 

Badua, Hindi: बादउआ 

Virehua, Hindi: विरेहुआ 

Virthariya, Hindi: विरथरिया 

Viroriya, Hindi: विरोरिया 

Gajpuria, Hindi: गजपुरिया 

Gidoriya, Hindi: गिंदौलिया / गिदौरिया 

Gangalas, Hindi: गांगलस 

Gulia, Hindi: गुलिया 

Ganpati, Hindi: गणपति 

Guteriya, Hindi: गुटेरिया 

Gotanlas, Hindi: गोतनलस 

Golas, Hindi: गोलस 

Jatua, Hindi: जटुआ 

Jabrewa, Hindi: जबरेवा 

Jigariya, Hindi: जिगारिया 

Jiroliya, Hindi: जिरौलिया 

Jigarwar, Hindi: जिगरवार 

Katheriya, Hindi: कठैरिया 

Kashiwar, Hindi: काशीवार 

Kuteriya, Hindi: कुटेरिया 

Kutwariya, Hindi: कुतवरिया 

Kachchlas, Hindi:कच्छलस / कठछारस 

Katrauliya, Hindi: कतरौलिया 

Kankatia, Hindi:कनकतिया 

Katas, Hindi: कातस 

Kothia, Hindi: कोठिया 

Mohaniya, Hindi: मोहनियॉं 

Modi, Hindi: मोदी 

Merothiya, Hindi: मैरोठिया 

Madhawar, Hindi: मढ़ावार 

Mathesuriya, Hindi:माठेसुरिया 

Murwaria, Hindi:मुरवारिया 

Mahamaniya, Hindi:महामनियॉं 

Mahawar, Hindi: महावार 

Mandalas, Hindi: माडलस 

Bhesanwar, Hindi:भेसनवार 

Bhatarkotia, Hindi:भतरकोठिया 

Bhabhalpuria, Hindi:भभालपुरिया 

Bhadrauliya, Hindi:भदरौलिया 

Chandalas, Hindi: चॉदलस 

Chaudahrana, Hindi:चौदहराना 

Chausia, Hindi: चौसिया 

Laghua, Hindi: लघउआ 

Therahmaniya, Hindi:तैरहमनिया 

Tainguriya, Hindi: तैनगुरिया 

Ghagharwar, Hindi:घाघरवार 

Khobadiya, Hindi: खोबड़िया 

Khuteriya, Hindi: खुटैटिया 

Fanjoloya, Hindi: फंजोलिया 

Farsaiya, Hindi: फरसैया 

Hathkatia, Hindi: हतकतिया / हथकटिया 

Jayadeva, Hindi: जयदेवा 

Doneriya, Hindi: दोनेरिया 

Niboriya, Hindi: निबौरिया 

Naugaiya, Hindi: नौगैया 

Nirjawar, Hindi:निरजावार 

Obviously, the clan was very divergent. Some of clan names seems common in other varna, castes and / or sub-castes. Vaishya are those whose mind is engaged by the VISHAYA. VISHAYA means, subject or specialization or professional knowledge. When a product is sold in volume at consistent basis, it becomes profession. Hence, these migrants from Mathura were Vaishya from time immemorial in true spirit ofVedas. Some of descendents, from some of clans left Bateshwar area and / or joined their earlier relatives, as life was tough and business aveneues were limited. This has caused some clans big (e.g. Baccharwar), while some small (e.g. Basoriya). In case of adoption, both clan (bio-logical as well adopting) parents linkage was considered. However, marriages are forbidden within two degrees on the biological mother's side, and seven on the bio-logical father. The adopting father gotra becomes gotra of adopted child. Widow re-marriage was not allowed, however widower re-marriage was allowed.

As life moved forward, there was additions in clan (clan names ending with letter 'AL') of those Vaishya of erstwhile Mathura, who could not join them earlier. These following clans were added generations later, when they arrived in Bateshwar area.

Kotwal, Hindi: कोतवाल 

Kaushal, Hindi: कौशल 

Bachhal, Hindi: बाछल


In past, Mathur Vaishya did not marry, if any of four Gotra (of Father, Maternal Uncle, Grandmother & Maternal Grandmother) matched among themselves. The reasoning for same was the belief; that many years ago their elders belonged to one clan and hence are blood related brothers and sisters. This worked perfectly for centuries, as there were more than 100 clans. However, with imbalance in clan sizes and desire for specific type of lifemate in the community, forced a change in custom. Now only matching of Gotra of Father & Maternal Uncle is checked, along with check of bride / groom swapping on father's side among living generations (e.g. Bride's brother can not marry Groom's sister in future). Despite the above mentioned additions in community centuries ago, the community over these years has become localized, and may suffer in future the effects of DNA recessive mutations. According to tradition, the dasa are said to be the close relatives of Mathur Vaishya having non-Mathur Vaishya spouse & their descendants, though this concept is a thing of the past now.

Community Organization

Mathur vaishya have an all India organization called Akhil Bharatiya Mathur Vaishya Mahasabha which was founded in 1887 CE, (and also a women organisation called Mahila Sammelan), having its office in all big cities of India, and main offices at Agra & Jaipur. About 1970 CE, reforms were mooted in community again. It was suggested that the remarriage and rehabilitation of widows be permitted. There was demand for abolition of dowry, which continue to hurt community like double edged sword. Following are some of publications about community in Hindi language:

Mathur vaishya Bandhu 

Mathur vaishya Chetna 
 
Mathur vaishya Chitran

Mathur vaishya Darpan 

Mathur vaishya Jagrati 

Mathur vaishya Hiteshi

Mathur Vaishya as a community have progressed tremendously.Today they are all are successful and at the top in business in India and growing .In pre-independent British India, they actively participated in freedom struggle. There were few MLA (Member of Legislative Assembly), MLC (Member of Legislative Council) & Mayor from Mathur Vaishya community, who represented the constituencies of Jhansi, Shikohabad, Fatehabad, Dholpur & Agra before caste polarization in Indian politics. In independent India, the initial preference among educated ones were professions of Doctor & Teacher. With the boom in outsourcing opportunities in India, Engineering has become the preferred profession among educated ones. In recent times, they are well placed in Corporate India.


साभार : विकी पेडिया 















4 comments:

  1. mahwar baniya aur agarwal men kya fark hai

    ReplyDelete
  2. mahwar baniya aur agarwal men kya fark hai

    ReplyDelete
  3. हम वैश्यों में करीब ३५० जातिया हैं. महावर और अग्रवाल भी उन जातियों में एक हैं. दोनों ही जाति वैश्य है, पर अलग अलग ओरिजिन और इतिहास हैं.

    ReplyDelete
  4. माथुर वैश्य के बारे में जानकारी के लिए धन्यवाद....प्रवीन जी...

    ReplyDelete

हमारा वैश्य समाज के पाठक और टिप्पणीकार के रुप में आपका स्वागत है! आपके सुझावों से हमें प्रोत्साहन मिलता है कृपया ध्यान रखें: अपनी राय देते समय किसी प्रकार के अभद्र शब्द, भाषा का प्रयॊग न करें।