Thursday, December 1, 2011

वैश्यों व बनियों के कुछ समुदाय व जातिया

वैश्यों व बनियों के कुछ समुदाय व जातिया


Banias are very good to their own caste, and when a man is ruined will have a general subscription and provide funds to enable him to start afresh in a small way. Beggars are very rare in this caste. The Bania has a system by which he exacts from those who deal with him a slight percentage on the price received by them for religious purposes. This is called Deodan or a gift to God, and is supposed to go into some public fund for the construction or maintenance of a temple or similar object.

Main Classes in Banias are as follows:

Marwari Bania:

Marwar is a place in Rajputana, from where we have Marwari Rajputs, Marwari Brahmins, Marwari Banias, etc. Out of the 128 merchant Marwari sub-castes in Rajasthan (that Todd counted), only five became big and prominent in Indian national commerce. These were the Maheshwaris, Oswals, Aggarwals, Porwals and Khandelwals. 

Marwaris vanias include the Mahajans, Maheshwaris, Oswals, Aggarwals, Sarawagis, Por(w)als or Porwar, Shrimals, Shrishrimals, Vijayvargias, Sunlas, Bohres, Pheriwalas, Baldias and Lohias, Khandelwal, Padmavati Purval, Lamechu, Chaturth, Pancham, Bagherwal, Shetwal, etc. 

In addition there are the Orwals, Mohnots, Singhis, Lodhas and Mohatas, Saukar, Sarraff or Shroff, Banya Komati, Modi grianseller etc. whose members are in the field of business, industry and administration. 

The Marwari arrange themselves into 12 tribes: the Mestri, the Urwar, Agarwal, Bijabargi, Sarogi and Oswa(l), Kandalwal, Neddatwar, and Porwal, etc. These all are divided into numerous kap or clans; in the Mahessar tribe alone are 72, amongst whom are the Rathi and Dhaga. These whealthy bankers and merchants, scattered throughout India, are all known under the denomination of Marwari, which means belonging to Maru or Marusthan, the desert. It is singular, Colonel Tod adds (Rajasthan, ii. P. 234), that the wealth of India should centre in this region of comparative sterility. 

Khandelwal: 

Are scatterd in UP and the Central Provinces. They take their name from the town of Khandela in the Jaipur State of Rajputana, which was formerly the capital of the Shekhawati ferderation. (There are also other varnas with the name of Khandelwal). The Khandelwals are not inferior to any other division of the caste either in wealth or refinement. In Khandelwal Bania, the gotras are Sethi, Seth, Ranvka, Gangwal etc. 


Kesarwani


Most of Kasarwani has sur name like Kesarwani, Kesari, Gupta etc. The community was originated from Uttar Pradesh & later spreaded to other states of India like Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nepal and outside India. The name is probably derived from Kesar (Saffron), as these banias were involved in Kesar trade. The Kesarwanies have now abandoned it and now deal in grain and groceries and lend money like othet Banias. Matches for mariage are arranged in the presence of the caste panchayat, who is known as Chaudhri. The following is a local derivation of the name; the word kasar means more or to increase, and bhata means less; and Hamara kya kasar bhata? Means ‘How does my account stand?' Hence Kasarbani is one who keeps accounts (a Bania). 

Kasaundhan Bania: 

Found in Up and MP. The name is derived (as per Mr. Crooke) from Kansa (bell-metal) and dhana (wealth). It appears that like the Kasarwanis, the Kasaundhans are also an occupational group, made up of shopkeepers who dealt in metal vessels.The Kasaudhan Banias may therefore not improbly be an occupational group formed from persons who engaed in the trade, and in that case they may be wholly or partly derived from the Kasars and Tameras, the castes which work in brass, copper and bell-metal. They may have come to Chattisgarh from Mirzapur, attracted the bell-metal industries in Katanpur and Drug. Kasaundhans may have originally constitued from the metal-working castes and indeed they may be only a local branch of the Kasarwanis, though no information is available that would decide this point. In the United Provinces both the Kasarwanis and Kasaundhans are divided into the Purbia, or eastern and Pachhaiyan or western subcastes. Dharam Das, the disciple of Kabir Das, is said to be from this. 

Nema Bania: 


The Nema are most largely returned from Central India, and are pobably a Bundelkhand group. The origin of the name is obscure; the suggestion that it comes from Nimar appears to be untenable, as there are very few Nemas in that District. They are divided into Bisas and Dasas. There also appears to a third group of Pachas or fives who appear to be the offspring of kept women. After some generations after the Pachas are promoted into the Dasa group. The Bisa and Dasa groups do not intermarry but take food together. There is a saying about them: "Where a sheep grazes or a Nema trades, what is there left for anybody else?". 

Ummar /Umre Banya: 

They are perhaps the same as the Ummar Banias of the United Provinces, who reside in the Meerut, Agra and Kumaon Divisions. In the Central Provinces they are known as Umre Baniya. The name Umre is found as a subdivision of several castes in the Central Provinces as the Telis and others and is probably derived from some town tract of country in northern or central India, but no identification has been made. Mr. Bhimbai Kirparam (Bombay Gazetteer, p 98) states that in Gujarat the Ummar Banias are also known as Bagaria from the Bagar or wild country, comprised in the Dongarpur and Pertabgarh States of Rajputana, where considerable numbers are still settled. Their headquarters is at Sagwara, near Dongarpur. In Damoh the Umre Banias formerly cultivated the al-plant, which yielded a well-known dye, and hence lost caste, as in soaking the roots of the plant to extract the dye the numerous insects in them are necessarily destroyed. The Dosar subcaste is a branch of the Umre, who allow widow-remarriage. 

Dosar, Dusra Bania: 

The original name is Dusra or second and they are ab section of the Ummar Banias, who were so called because they permit widows to make a second marriage. Their home is the Ganga-Jamuna Doab and Oudh, and in the UP they are classed as an inferior subcaste of the Ummars. Here they say that the Ummars are their elder brothers. 

They have 3 sections, the Doab, Oudh & Allahabad. They have exogamous sections; instances of these are Gangaparai, a native of Oudh; Sagarah, a resident of Saugor; Makraha, a seller of makka or maize, and Tamakhuha, a tobacco- seller. The castes are mainly shopkeepers, and they deal in gold and silver ornaments, as well as grain, tobacco and all kinds of groceries. 

Porwal Bania: 

The origins of the Porwals/Porawals is unknown, but judging from the name this may be in Rajputana. Among the Porwars the Samaiya or Channagri formed a separate Jain group. Among the Porwars themselves there is a social subdivision between the Ath Sake and the Chao Sake; the former will not permit marriage of persons related more nearly than eight degrees, while the latter permit it after four degrees.

The Ath Sake have the higher position, and if one of them marries a Chao Sake he is degraded to that group. Besides this the Porwals have a inferior division called Benaika, which consists of the offspring of irregular unions. Persons who have committed a caste offense and caanot pay the fine, also go into this subcaste.

The Powar/Pawar have 12 gotras or main sections and each gotra is supposed to have 12 muls or subsections. The Po(r)wars abstain from eating flesh or drinking liquor. They have a panchayat and impose penalties for offenses against caste rules, such as the killing of any living thing, unchastity or adultery, theft or other bad conduct. 

They are generally engaged in the trade of grain, ghi, and other staples. Several of them are well to do. 

Bengali Bania:

Use names of: Dasgupta, Das, Dattagupta, Datta , Gupta, Majumdar, Mallik, Ray, Raymajumdar, Sarkar, Sengupta, Sen, Senmajumdar, Senray, Laha , Maiti, Mandal, Niyogi, Pal, Saha 

Dekhani Vanya: 

Konkani Bania: 

Also Kunams or Kunbi Vanis or Maratha traders. The names in common use among men are Bapu, Balvant, Dhondu, Govind and Rania; and among women, Bhagirathi, Chimani, Ganga, Manu, Sakhi, Salu and Thaki. They add the word shet or merchant to the names of men and bai to the names of women. Their surnames are Avari, Ahir, Bodake, Borule, Dandnaik, Dhavare, Golade, Gujar, Hagvane, Holkar, Jagdale, Kadekar, Kalaskar, Kale, Kasid. Mitkari, Motale, Nandure, Nikam, Pabbore, Pansambal, Sajgure, Sabele, Sadavarte, Todekari, Vaskar,Yevari etc. Persons bearing the same surname cannot inter-marry. Their family-gods are Bahiroba of Sonari in Amadnagar, Devi of Tuljapur and of Rasin in Ahmadnagar, Dayal Malik in the town of Ahmadnagar, Khandoba of Jejuri near Pune, and Vyankatesh of Tirupati in North Arkot. They have two divisions, one which wears and one which does not wear the ling, and who differ in no points except that the ling-wearers rub their brows with cowdung ashes. They eat together and intermarry. They do not differ from local Maratha, Kunbis in appearance or dress. They are a religious people, worshipping all Brahmanic gods and keeping all Hindu fasts and feasts. They almost have equal reverence to Shiv and Vishnu and go on pilgrimage to Alandi, Banaras, Jejuri, Tuljapur and Tirupati. The priest of those who wear the ling is a Jangam, but they also call a Brahman to their chief ceremonies. They are Sampradais or followers of Tukaram who lived in the seventeenth century, wear rosaries of basil beads, and repeat his couplets or abhangs in honour of Vithoba of Pandharpur. Their religious teacher is a devotee of Vithoba and a follower of Tukaram, whom they bow and offer un-cooked food, flower and sandal paste. They worship local gods, and believe in witch-craft, sooth-saying, and spirits, whom they scare by repeating prayers and with the help of Deyrushis or Hindu exorcists. The followers of Tukararn burn their dead and mourn ten days; lingwearers bury with Lingayat rites but hold after-death ceremonies in Brahman fashion. They have a caste council or panch, and settle social disputes at meetings of caste-men under the control of the council. A head-man, called shetya, attends marriages, and the fathers of the bride and bridegroom, groom present him with betel and mark his brow with sandal paste, His office, is hereditary, and traders consult him on trade questions. He fixes the market rates and all members of the community are forbidden to under-sell on pain of fine or loss of caste. 

Divisions: 

Angane, Ahir, Angre, Avari, Bagrao, Bagwe, Bande, Bhagore, Bhalekar, Bhogale, Bhoite, Bhorate, Bhoware, Bodake, Borule, Dabhade, Dadhe, Dalvi, Dandnaik, Darbare, Devkate, Dhamale, Dhamdhere, Dhavare, Dhawle, Dhekale, Dhone, Dhumak or Dhumal, Dhybar, Dige, Gaikwad, Gavane (or Gavase), Ghatge, Golade, Gujar, Hagvane, Harane, Harphale, Holkar, Jagdale, Jagdhane, Kakde,Kadekar, Kalaskar, Kale, Kank, Kasid, Khadtare, Khaire, Kokate, Kshirsagar, Lokhande, Madhure, Mahadik, Mahakule, Malap, Malusare, Mane, Mhambar, Misal, Mitkari, Mohite, Motale, Nalwade, Nandure, Nikam, Pabbore, Palande, Pansambal, Parte (or Pathare or Phadtare), Phakde, Phalke, Pingale, Pudhare, Rasal, Renuse, Sabele, Sadavarte, Sajgure, Sambhare, Shankpal, Shirke, Shitole, Surve, Tawde, Teje, Thorat, Thote, Todekari,Ubale, Varade, Vaskar, Vichare, Wagh and Yevari. 

Komti Bania: 

The Marwari is essentially following similar mercantile pursuits to the Vaisya Komati of Peninsular India, and those of the Wani or Bani(a), to which the Komati add that of retail shopkeeping. All the Marwari of Rajputana adhere to the principle of reckoning their descent to a founder, and in their marriage ceremonies they abstain from blodd relationship, never marrying into their own gotra. Their widows never re-marry. The Baniya or Komati merchants and bankers are generally of the Vaishnava sect, but some of them worship Siva. They are most numerous in Telingana (Andhra) and in Madras (Tamil Nadu). They are essentially shopkeepers, sellers of dry grains, cultivation, and mercatile business. The Wani of the Western coast will only marry with the Komati Banya. They are in considerable numbers in the northern Andhra, adjoining Berar. They seem to have come from Telaugana. The names in common use among men are Govinda, Rama, Vishnu and Vithoba; and among women Chima, Ganga, Lakshmi Rama and Yamuna. Their surnames are Bhingarkar, Chhet, Chitte Gandhekar, Konakam, Nimbalkar, Niradkar, Pankar, Sudal, Tanitar and Vadkar. Persons bearing the same surnames cannot inter-marry. Their home-tongue is Telugu, and the family-god is Balaji o Vyankatraman of Tirupati in North Arkot. They are divided into Jana, and Vani Komtis, the Janays weaving and selling sacred thread which the Vani Komtis neither weave nor sell. These two classes eat together but do not inter-marry. There is a third class of Kadu Komtis who eat but do not marry with the other Komtis. They are dark, strong, and flabby, with a round face and small lively eyes. Everyday they lay flowers, sandal pasta and food before the image of Vyankatraman of Tirupati, of Vithoba of Pandharpur, of Devi of Tuljapur, of Ganpati, of Khandoba of Jejur in Pune, and of Maruti, and keep all Hindu fasts and feasts. Their priest is a Telangi Brahman who lives in Pune, and visits their villages once a year, but does not take food at their hands. He officiates at their marriages and receives a yearly tribute in money from each of his followers. In his absence, local Brahmans are asked to take his place at their ceremonies and are much respected. They make pilgrimages to Jejuri in Pune, Pandharpur in Sholapur and Tirupati in North Arkot. They are bound together by a strong caste feeling and settle social disputes, at meeting of caste-men. Smaller breaches of social rules are punished with fine and graver offences are referred to their religious teacher Krishnacharya whose decision is final and is obeyed on pain of loss of caste. 

Agrahari Bania: 

Like that of the Agarwala, their name has been connected with the Agra and Agroha. There is no doubt that the 2 castes are closely connected and Mr. Nesfeld suggests that the 2 groups must have been sections of one and the same caste which quarreled on some trifling matter connected with cooking or eating, and have remained separate since. They are principally dealers in provisions and they have acquired some discredit as compared to their kinsfolk the Agarwalas. 

Ajudhiabasi (Audhia) Bania: 

They are form Ajodhia, the old name of Oudh. Outsiders often shorten the name to Audhia but this is regurlay applied to a criminal class, who may have derived from the Ajudhiabasi Banias, but are now quite distinct from them. Though Oudh was their original home they are now fairly numerous in Kanpur and Bundelkhand and from here the Central Provinces. Their principal goddess is Devi and at the Dasahra festival they offer a goat to her. 

Asathi Bania: 

They say their original home was the Tikamgrah State in Bundelkhand. They do not rank very high and are sometimes said to be the descendants of an Ahir who became Bania. It is told that the Asathis first bury their dead in accordance presumably with a former practice and then exhume and burn the bodies; and there is a saying: Ardha jale, ardha gare; Jinka nam Asathi pare or: "He who is an Asathi is half buried and half burn.". But this practice, if it ever really existed, has now been abandoned. 

Charnagri Bania, Samiya Bania: 

They ar chiefly in the Damoh and Chhindwara Districts. They are practically all derived from the Porwal banias and formerly would sometimes give their daughters to Porwars in marriage. Like other Bania subcastes they are divided into Bisa and Dasa, the Dasa being of iregular descent. Intermarriage between the 2 sections occasionally occurs. 

Gahoi Bania: 

Their home is the Bhundelkhand and they are found in Saugor, Karaghpur, Jabalpur and Narsinghpur Districts. The subcaste has 12 gotras or sections and 72 al or anken, which are subsections of the gotras. Several of the al names appear to be of a titular or totemistic character, as Mor - peacock, Sohania - beautiful, Nagaria - a drummer, Paharia - a hillman, Matele - the name of a village headman in Budelkhand, Piparvania - from the pipal tree, Dadaria - a singer. 

Golapurab Bania, Golahre: 

Its distribution is nearly the same as the Gahois, and it is probably also a Bundelkhand group.

In UP a small subcaste called Golahre exists, belonging to Jhansi District. There is no doubt that this group is the same as the Golapurabs and Mr. Crooke derives the name from gola, a grain-mart. In Agra there is a cultivating caste also called Golapurab. 

Lad Bania: 

Lad Banis as their name seems to show that they came to Ahmadnagar from south Gujarat whose old name (A.D. 150) was Lad or Lat Desh. The names in common use among men and women do not differ from those used by local Hindus. Their surnames are Balate, Chavan, Cikhale, Chaudhari, Gosavi, Jhare, Karade, Khele, Modi, Paithankar and Shete.

Their family-gods are Devi of Tuljapur, Mahadey of Shingnapur in Satara, and Vithoba of Pandharpur in Sholapur. Their caste deity is Ashapuri or Ashnai near Petlad.

Sameness of family-stock but not sameness of surname is a bar to marriage. They are religious people, worshipping their family and other Brahmanic gods, and visiting holy places. Their priest is a Deshasth/Khedawal Brahman whom, they ask to officiate at their leading ceremonies. Their customs are partly like those of Kunbis and partly like those of Brahmans, except that the texts are in ordinary and not in Vedic Sanskrit. Social disputes are settled at meetings and breaches of social discipline are punished with fines which are generally spent on caste-feasts. Like other Banias they are divided into the Bisa and Dasa groups or 20s and 10s, the Dasa being of irregular descent. 

Maheshwari Bania: 

Also called Maheshri or Meshri Marwaris. The name is said to be derived from Maheshwar, an ancient town on the Nerbudda, near Indore. But some of them say that original home is in Bikaner, and tell a story to the effect that their ancestor was a Raja: Raja Khadgal Sen of Khandela was blessed with a son Sujankunwar after a yagnya was performed. The rishis (priests) who did the yagnya warned the king that this son of his should not be allowed to go East. When Sujankunwar grew, he inherited the kingdom. King Khadgal Sen himself retired. Not heeding the advice of the priests he proceeded with his 72 Umraons towards east. Seeing the priests performing yagnya, Sujankunwar asked his Umraons to disturb it. For this deed of theirs the priests made them all in statues. On hearing the news Khadgal Sen along with his queens killed themselves. Chandrawati - wife of Sujankunwar, along with the wives of all the Umraons went to the place where their husbands were made into statues. They pleaded with the priests to reconvert their husbands to live form. The priests showed their inability to take back the curse. They, however, advised these women to pray with Lord Shiva and Parvatiji for bringing these statues back to life. Lord Shiva and Parvatiji were impressed by the prayers and gave life to all the statues. They were also asked to leave their Kshatriya tradition and convert to Vaisyas. 

The priests on whose curse the Umraons were made into statues were Parashar (Pareek), Dadhichi (Dahiya), Gautam (Gurjar Gaud), Khandik (Khandelwal), Sukumarg (Sukuwal) and Sarsur (Sarswat). The priests asked the Lord as to how their yagnyas would materialise and who will save them from the plunderers. The Lord asked them that each of the six priests should take 12 Umraons as their disciples and these Umraons will keep on giving you alms. The descendent of these 72 Vaisya families will always be with you to take care. From then these 72 families were called Maheshwaris taking the name from Lord Mahesh or Lord Shiva. 

These 72 families with their surnames (khaps) formed the primary Maheshwari list of surnames. Later there were subdivisions and from amongst these 72 surnames their were more sub-surnames (up-khaps), the names of which to appear to be titular or territorial. It was in this way that with the blessing of Lord Mahesh the formation of Maheshwaris was done on the ninth day of the Jyetha month. Later 5 more families from the Kshatriyas joined the Maheshwaris. It is said that the ancesters of Maheshwari Samaj originally were Kshatriya, who were converted to Vaishya. 

In Gujarat the name Maheshwari appears to be used for all Banias who are not jain, including the other important Hindu subcastes. This is somewhat peculiar and perhaps it shows that many of the local subcastes are of recent formation. 

Though they profess to be named after Siva, they are Vaishnavas. The Maheshris alsq have the Rajput custom of sending a cocoanut as a symbol of a proposal of marriage. In Nimar the Maheshwari Banias say they belong to the Dhakar subcaste, a name which usually means illegitimate, though they themselves explained that is derived from a place Dhakargarh, from which they migrated. 

Meshri Marwaris are from Marwar. Meshri is a short form of Maheshvari that is worshippers of Maheshvar or the Great God. They are staunch worshippers of Shiv and say that Shiv restored them to life after they had been turned into stone by a saint whose hermitage hunger forced them to plunder. They are said to have come from Marwar and settled in Ahmadnagar about two hundred years ago. The names in common use among men are Ambadas, Bijaram, Gopaldas, Lachhiram, Mayaniram, Mangaldas, Otarari, Ramsuk and Savairam and among women, Gangabai, Jamnabai, Mathurabai, Pritabai and Yamunabai. 

The men add Shetji or Shahaii to their names and their surnames are Aju, Babari, Baladave, Bajaj, Batad, Bang, Bhadade, Bhandari, Bhutade, Buvi, Byahani, Dage, Darag, Dramani, Gelada, Gilade, Hede, Judani, Jakhote, Jhanvar, Jodar, Jval, Kalya, Kakani, Kavare, Khadalaya, Kathiye, Lada, Loya, Lakhote, Lohati, Madhane, Malavi, Malu, Miniyar, Mintri, Modani, Mudane, Mundade, Sadade, Shikachi, Soni, Totale and Tosanivar. 

Persons bearing the same surnames cannot inter-marry. Their home is Marwar, and their family-god is Balaji of Tirupati in North Arkot. In appearance, dwelling, food, drink, dress, character, calling and position they do not differ from Osval Marwaris. They are religious, worshipping their family-god Balaji or Vyankoba of Tirupati among other Brahmanic gods, and keeping all Hindu fasts and feasts. Their priest is a Deccan Brahman who is asked to officiate at their death and marriage ceremonies. Though they belong to the Shaiv sect, they worship Vishnu and visit all sacred places. They are bound together by a strong caste-feeling and settle social disputes according to the opinion of their caste-men under the presidency of the council or panch. 

The 72 khaps or clans with further subdivisions/surnames are: 

Aagsoond (Aagsoond) 

Agiwal (Agiwal) 

Ajmera (Ajmera, Bhagat, Bhagrutya, Dabkodya, Dauda, Dhol, Dholesarya ) 

Asawa (Asawa) 

Atal (Atal, Gauthniwal) 

Baheti (Agsund, Amrapal, Babdauta, Badha, Badhani, Badolya, Baghala, Baheti, Baraudia, Basani, Batadia, Bedchiwal, Bediwal, Bilavadya, Boob, Bugtalya, Charkha, Daalya, Dalya, Dargad, Dhagra, Dhanad, Dharani, Dhaul, Dhenaut, Dhirani, Dhoonwal, Dongra, Durani, Gandharia, Gandhi, Garviya, Gaukanya, ) 

Bajaj (Bajaj, Behadaya, Chamur, Dharuka, Gatooka) 

Bal(a)di (Baladi) 

Baldua (Baldua, Beriwal) 

Bang(ur) 

Bangurad (Bangurad) 

Bhattar (Balwani, Beesa, Bhattar, Bhichhoo, Bisani, Gandhi, ) 

Bihani (Bachani, Badahka) 

Birla (Badaliya, Birla, Gatthya) 

Boob (Boob, Boradya) 

Bhandari (Bhakava, Bhandari, Bhookya, Gaura) 

Bhansali (Bhansali) 

Bhootda or Bhutra (Bhootda, Chanchya, Chowdhary, Devdattani, Devgattani ) 

Bhuraria (Bhoongarya, Bhuraria, Boob) 

Bidadi or Bidada (Bidadi) 

Bihani (Bihani) 

Birla (Gatthya, Gauriya ) 

Bung (Bung, Chheetarka) 

Chandak (Bhaiya, Bhishani, Bihani, Chandak, Gaurani) 

Chhaparwal (Chhaparwal, Dujara, Dusaj ) 

Chechani (Chechani, Dudani) 

Chokhda (Chokhda) 

Daad (Daad, Daadarya) 

Daga (Bhojani, Bihani, Daga, Dammani, Darabarya, Doonda, Gaurani) 

Darak (Chowdhary, Darak) 

Devpura Dewpuri (Devpura) 

Dhoopad (Dhoopad) 

Dhoot (Dhoot) 

Enani (Enani) 

Gadeeya (Chaudary, Gadeeya) 

Gagrani (Bawrechya, Daudya, Gagad, Gagrani ) 

Gattani (Gattani) 

Gilda (Gahlda) 

Heda 

Hurkat (Bhaulani, Chowdhary) 

Jaju 

Jakhetia (Bhuvaniwal) 

Jhanwar (Bhagat, Chaudari, Dani, Gahalwal) 

Kacholya 

Kalantri 

Kankani 

Karwa 

Kasat 

Khator 

Lahoti 

Kabra (Athareya, Bhagat, Dhol, ) 

Kahalya (Bahadka, Chahadka) 

Kalani (Gattani) 

Khatwad (Bhala, Bhuria, Bhutiya, Gahalda, Gandhi) 

Laddha (Atthasanya, Bhaakrodya, Chowdhary, Dagadya, Dangda, Dharani) 

Lakhotia (Bhaiya) 

Maalpani (Bhoora) 

Maloo (Chowdhary) 

Maniyaar (Baraghu) 

Manoondhanya /Mandhanya (Chowdhary) 

Mandovara (Dholesarya) 

Modani (Bamb) 

Mundhra (Aladia, Ateranya, Athani, Baldiya, Bareefa, Bavari, Bhakaraani, Bharani, Bhaulani, Chamadya, Chamakya, Chhotapasari, Chowdhary, Damalka, Daudya, Dhedhaya, Gablani, Gaurani) 

Naulakha 

Nawal 

Navdhar (Dhanani, Dharani, Dheeran, Dheerani, Dhrani, Dhudhani) Nyati (Dandi, Fofaliya) 

Palaud /Phalod (Bhakad, Chavandya, Chawata, Chitlangya, Daudya, Fofaliya, Galedha) 

Partani (Daagdya) 

Porvaar or Parwal (Daagadya) 

Rathi (Aafaani, Akhe Singot, Arajanani, Baajra, Baabecha, Baapal, Bachani , Badhani, Bagra, Bahgatani, Banaani, Basdevani,Bejara, Bekat, Bekhatani, Bhaag Chandot, Bhaiya, Bhakarani, Bhatani, Bhaulani, Bhichalati, Bhojani, Bilya, Binnani, Bisatani, Brijvasi, Bursalpuriya, Chapsani, Chaturbhubhot, Chaturbhujani, Chaukhani, Chauthani, Chowdhary, Dammani, Dasvani, Dedawat, Deshvani, Devgattani, Devraajani, Dhamaani, Dhagdawat, Dhanani, Dooddhani, Doudmootha, Dudawat , Dwarakani, Faafat, Fateh Singod, Gaandi, Gagani) 

Sarda (Bhaangadya, Bhalika, Chaudary, Daadalya) 

Sikchi 

Sodhani (Dakheda, Dantaal, Dhouli) 

Somani (Aasofa, Baagri, Balepota) 

Soni (Bhanawat ) 

Tapadya /Taparia (Chhachhya) 

Tawri (Bhakaraeece, Bhojani) 

Toshniwal (Bhakraudya, Chenarya, Daga, Darna, Damdi, Das) 

Totla 

Gujrat Vanis

Gujarat Vanis include the two divisions of Vadnagari and Visnagari Vanis, and claim descent from the Vaishyas, the third of the four traditional Hindu tribes. The names in common use among men arc Damodardas, Dwarkadas, Haridas, Krishnadas, Madhavdas, Prabhudas, Vallabhdas, Vishnudas, Vithaldas and Uttamdas; and among women Bhagirthibai, Jamnabai, Krishnabai, Kaveribai, Motibai, Rakhamabai, Sundarabai and Vithabai. They have no surnames. Their family-god is Vyankatesh or Balaji of Tirupati. Some are Vadnagars and others Visnagars from the towns of those names in north Gujarat. All in the district are said to belong to the Vishe division of these two classes. The two classes eat together but do not inter-marry. As a rule they are wheat-coloured, regular and delicate-featured and weak, the women being fairer than the men. Their home-tongue is Gujarati, but out-of-doors they speak Marathi. They are religious, worshipping all Brahmanic gods and keeping all Hindu fasts and feasts. Their family-gods are Balaji or Vyankoba of Tirupati in North Arkot and Vithoba of Pandharpur, and they make pilgrimages to the leading Hindu sacred places. Their priest is a Gujarati Brahman, and in his absence a Deshasth Brahman is asked to officiate at their marriage and death ceremonies. They belong to the Vallabhacharya sect. Every male and female should receive religious instruction from the teacher and repeat the verse or mantra which the teacher whispers into the ear of the initiated. They bow before him and offer him flowers and sandal paste. They believe in sooth-saying and astrology, but profess not to believe in witch-craft, omens or evil spirits. Of the sixteen Brahman ceremonies or sanskars they perform the naming, hair- clipping, marriage, puberty and death ceremonies. The details on each of these occasions differ little from those in use among local Brahmans. When a boy begins to learn to write, he is taken to school on a lucky day with music and a band of friends. In the name of Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, he lays before the slate, flowers, sandal paste, vermilion and turmeric powder, sweetmeats, with betel leaves and nuts and a coconut, and bows to the slate. Packets of sweetmeats are handed among the schoolboys. The teacher makes the boy write Om namas siddham, corrupted into O na ma si dham, that is, Bow to the perfect, and is presented with a roll of betel leaves, nuts and money, and the learning ceremony or Sarasvati pujan is over. Unlike local Brahmans, girls worship the goddess of fortune or mangalagauri before, and never after, they are married. Early marriage is allowed and practised, widow marriage and polygamy are forbidden on pain of loss of caste; polyandry is unknown. They have a caste council and settle social disputes at its meetings. Breaches of caste discipline are punished with fine and the decisions of the council are obeyed on pain of loss of caste. 

Gujarat Jains, also called Shravaks. According to their own account they formerly dwelt in Oudh and accepted Jainism along with Bharat, a Solar Kshatriya, the great disciple of Vardhamansvami. They are called Gujars because after leaving Oudh they settled in Gujarat. The names in common use among men and women are the same as those used by Vaishnav Gujars and the men add shetji or master and bhoyiji or brother to their names. Their surnames are Bhandari, Ganchi, Mulavera, Nanavati, Patu, Saraph, Shaha and Vakhariya. Persons bearing the same surnames may not inter-marry. Their home-tongue is Gujarati, and their family-god is Parasnath. They marry among themselves. In appearance and habits they do not differ from Gujar Vanis. They rank with Vaishnav Gujars though neither class eats from the other. They are religious, and they belong to the Digambar sect.

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