Thursday, December 1, 2011

VAISHYA CASTES OF INDIA - कुछ वैश्य जातिया

Vaishyas


Vaishyas divided into 7 groups: Bohra, Bania, Agrawal, Oswal. These groups usually do not intermarry. 


The Banias are very good to their own caste, and when a man is ruined will have a general subscription and provide funds to enable him to start afresh in a small way. Beggars are very rare in this caste. The Bania ha s a system by which he exacts from those who deal with him a slight percentage on the price received by them for religious purposes. This is called Deodan or a gift to God, and is supposed to go into some public fund for the construction or maintenance of a temple or similar object. 

Marwari Bania:

Marwari is a country in Rajputana, from where we have Marwari Rajputs, Marwari Brahmins, Marwari Banias , etc. Of the 128 merchant Marwari sub-castes in Rajasthan (that Todd counted), only five became big and prominent in Indian national commerce. These were the Maheshwaris, Oswals, Aggarwals, Porwals and Khandelwals. Marwaris vanias include the Mahajans, Maheshwaris, Oswals, Aggarwals, Sarawagis, Por(w)als or Porwar, Shrimals, Shrishrimals, Vijayvargias, Sunlas, Bohres, Pheriwalas, Baldias and Lohias, Khandelwal, Padmavati Purval, Lamechu, Chaturth, Pancham, Bagherwal, Shetwal, etc. In addition there are the are Orwals, Mohnots, Singhis, Lodhas and Mohatas, Saukar, Sarraff or Shroff, Banya Komati, Modi grianseller, etc whose members are in the field of business, industry and administration. The Marwari arrange themselves into 12 tribes: the Mestri, the Urwar, Agarwal, Bijabargi, Sarogi and Oswa(l), Kandalwal, Neddatwar, and Porwal, etc. These al are divided into numerous kap or clans; in the Mahessar tribe alone are 72, amongst whom are the Rathi and Dhaga. These whealthy bankers and merchants, scattered throughout India, are all known under the denomination of Marwari, which means belonging to Maru or Marusthan, the desert. It is singular, Colonel Tod adds (rajasthan , ii. P. 234), that the wealth of India should centre in this region of comparative sterility. 

Khandelwal :

Are scatterd in UP and the Central Provinces. They take their name from the town of Khandela in the Jaipur State of Rajputana, which was formerly the capital of the Shekhawati ferderation. (There are also other varnas with the name of Khandelwal). The Khandelwals are not inferior to nay other division of the caste either in wealth or refinement. In Khandelwal Bania, the gotras are Sethi, Seth, Ranvka, Gangwal, etc 

Kesarwani :


Most of Kasarwani /Kesarwanis has sur name like Kesarwani, Kesari, Gupta etc. The community was originated from Uttar Pradesh & later spreaded to other states of India like Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nepal and outside India. The name is probably derived from kansa, bell-metal, as these banias retail brass and bell-metal vessels. The Kasarwanis may therefore not improbly be an occupational group formed from persons who engaed in the trade, and in that case they may be wholly or partly derived from the Kasars and Tameras, the castes which work in brass, copper and bell-metal. The Kasarwanis are numerous in Allahabad and Mirzapur, and they may have come to Chattisgarh from Mirzapur, attracted the bell-metal industries in Katanpur and Drug. In Saugor and also in the United Provinces they say that came from Kara Manikpur several generations ago. If the selling of metal vessels was their original calling, many, or the majority of them, have now abandoned it, and now deal in grain and groceries, and lend money like othet Banias. Matches for mariage are arranged in the presence of the caste panchayat, who is known as Chaudhri. The following is a local derivation of the name; the word kasar means more or to increase, and bhata means less; and Hamara kya kasar bhata? Means ‘How does mu account stand?’ Hence Kasarbani is one who keeps accounts (a Bania). 

Kasaundhan Bania:

Found in Up and MP. The name is derived by Mr. Crooke from kansa, bell- metal, and dhana wealth, and it would appera that the Kasaundhans like the Kasarwanis are an occupational group, made up of shopkeepers who dealt in metal vessels. Like them also the Kasaundhans may have originally constitued from the metal-working castes, and indeed they may be only a local branch of the Kasarwanis, though no information is available that would decide this point. In the United Provinces both the Kasarwanis and Kasaundhans are divided into the Purbia, or eastern and Pachhaiyan or western subcastes. Dharam Das, the disciple of Kabir Das, is said to be from this caste. 

Oswal:

The Oswals also called Oswal Marwaris, or Saraogi, who are mainly Jains, hail from the town of Osia(n), or Osnagar, near Jodhpur in Rajasthan. According to one legend of their origin the Raja of Osnagar had no son, and obtained one through the promise of a Jain ascetic. Osadev, the guardian goddess of the palce told the ascetic to convert the Raja by a miracle. So she took a small hank of cotton and passed it along the back of the saint, when it immediately became a snake and bit Jaichand, the son of the Raja, in the toe. He died, and as the corpse was about to be burnt, the ascetic sent one of his disciples and stopped the cremation. He ordered the body to be returned to the place where the prince had been bitten. At midnight the snake returned and licked the bite, when the princ was returned to lie. Then the Raja became a Jain and founded the gotra now known as Sri Srimal or most noble; his servants formed that known as Srimal or most noble, while the other people of the town became ordinary Oswals. When the Brahmans of that place asked the saint how they were to live, as all their clients had become Jains, the saint directed that they should continue to be the family priests of the Oswals. Another version of the story is that the king of Srimali (now called Bhinmal) allowed no millionaire to live within the walls of the city. As a consequence, many Srimalis left and settled in Mandovad, calling it Osa, or the frontier. The large majority of Oswals are Jain, the ramainder being Vasnava Hindus. Like the Agarwals the Oswals are divided into the Bisas, Dasas and Pachas. The Oswals are divided into 48 gotras, a list of which is given by Mr. Crooke. Most of them cannot be recognised , but a few of them are titular, Lorha, a caste which grows hemp, Nunia a salt-refiner. Seth a banker, Daftari an officeboy, Bhandari a cook, and Kukura a dog, Buntia or Bantia etc. 

The Oswal Jains celebrate their festivals with great regularity, gaiety, colour and song. They are found scattered in Gujarat, Rajastahn and Maharstra. The men add chand or moon, das or slave, lal or favourite, and mal or warrior to their names, as Punamehand, Bhagvandas, Maniklal and Naharmal; Babaji and Kakaji are terms of respect used to elders and caste leaders. The names in common use among women are Chandkuvar, Jamni, Kesar, Kasturi, Moti, Rajkuvar, Rambha, Sankri and Suryakuvar. Bai or lady is generally added to woman's name. Their surnames are Bahira, Bhalkat, Bhandari, Chandgire, Chopade, Gadhe, Gadhate, Gandhi, Gugale, Gulecha, Kothar, Loda, Lukadrap, Mini, Mutachopada, Paragh, Pothame, Punavate, Sand, Sangide, Shinge, Sigavi, Sukhadi, Suma, Surana, Surapani and Vagmar. Persons bearing the same surnames cannot inter-marry. As a rule, like Gujaratis, relationship on the mother’s side is held to bar marriage as much as relationship on the father's side. Their home-tongue is Marwari and their family-gods are Ajitnath and Parasnath of Banaras, and Rikhabnath of Dhuleva in Udhepur Osvals have two divisions, Bade Sajans or Big Good men who are of the Dases or Tens, and the Chhote Sajans or Little Good men, who are of the Vise or Score division of the caste. Of the cause of the split in the caste the story is told that, about 800 years ago, a caste-feast was given at a village in Marwar when all members were asked except an old widow and her son whose names were forgotten by mistake. The old lady took offence and she and her son separated from the rest of the caste and founded the Bade or senior branch of the community. The two classes eat together but do not inter-marry. The home-tongue is Marwari, but they write their account books in Gujarati, and speak Marathi or Hindustani with others. They are religious, worshipping their family-god Parasnath and visiting his shrine at Shatranja hill in Palitana, and the shrine of Balaji or Vyankatraman at Tirupati. Their priest is a Marwar Brahman whom they call padhanevala or teacher, and in his absence, they ask local Brahmans to officiate at their ceremonies. They respect Brahmans of all classes and often make them money-gifts or dakshina. They belong to the Diganibar or sky-clad, that is, the naked-god worshipping Jains.. Their leading doctrine is that the taking of life is a sin. They worship images of the Jain gods without the help of a Jain priest. The Marwari bridegroom carries a sword and is regally clad in a turban, jewellery and a coconut is tied to his side. He is mounted on a lavishly decorated mare and led in a procession to the bride's house. It is customary for him to touch a decoration fixed on the door with a 'neem' twig, or perhaps his sword before entering. The marriage ceremonies that follow his arrival are elaborate and many of them are common to other Hindu communities. The light hearted ceremonies or 'games' that are played by the couple such as fishing for the ring in a bowl filled with milk or untying the knots on the bracelets are full of gaiety and laughter! 
Some common surnames: 

Baid, Jain, Sethia, Surana, Bhandary,Bahira, Bhalkat, Bhandari, Chandgire, Chopade, Gadhe, Gadhate, Gandhi, Gugale, Gulecha, Kothar, Loda, Lukadrap, Mini, Mutachopada, Parakh, Pothame, Punavate, Sand, Sangide, Shinge, Shrishrimal, Sigavi, Sukhadi, Suma, Surana, Surapani and Vagmar. Shrishrimal is one of the 18 original gotras of the Oswals. The list of 18 gotras is given in Upakesh-gachchha-charitra composed by Kakkasuri of Upakesh Gachchha in vikram 1393. They were based on their original Gotra or business or status. Tater,Bafna, Karnavat, Balaha, Morakh, Kulahat, Virhat, Shrishrimal, Shreshthi, Sancheti, Aditya Nag, Bhuri, Bhadra, Chinchat, Kumat, Didu, Kannojia, Lagushreshti Thus shrishrimals were the residents of Ukesh (Osia) when the Oswal nyat originated. Accounts mention that Osia was settled by former residents of Shrimal (Bhinmal) town. It seems that Shrishrimals originally lived in Shrimal before they moved to Osia. The residents of Osia eventually left and settled in various places. Osia was deserted. The main temple was restored in 18th century. There are several branches of Shrishrimals. Shrishrimals are related to Agarwal, Banddhmati, Jaiswal, Jati, Kharelwal, Lohiya, Sri Mal, Sri Sri Mal, Sri Mali Pattan, Palliwal, Purwal. 

Srimali banya take their name from the of Srimal, more than two-thirds were Hindus and the remainder Jains. Tod writes about Bhinmal and Sanchor: “ These town are on the high road to Cutch and Gujarat, which has given them from the most remote times a commercial celebrity. Bhinmal is said to contain about 1500 houses and Sanchor half that number. Ver wealthy mahajans or merchants used to reside here, but insecurity both within and without has much injured these cities”. From Bhinmal the Srimalis seem to have gone to Gujarat, where they are found in considerable numbers. Like the other banias they are divided into Bisa and Dasa. In Gujarat they also have a third territorial group known as Ladva, from Lad, the old name for Gujarat. All 3 sections take food together, but do not intermarry. The 2 highest sections of the Oswals are the Srimals and the SriSrimals and it is possible that further investigation might show that the Srimals and the Oswals to have been originally of one stock. 

Ummar /Umre Banya: 

They are perhaps the same as the Ummar Banias of the United Provinces, who reside in the Meerut, Agra and Kumaon Divisions. In the Central Provinces they are known as Umre Baniya. The name Umre is found as a subdivision of several castes in the Central Provinces, as the Telis and others, and is probably derived from some town tract of country in northern or central India, but no identification has been made. Mr. Bhimbai Kirparam (Bombay Gazetteer, p 98) states that in Gujarat the Ummar Banias are also known as Bagaria from the Bagar or wild country, comprised in the Dongarpur and Pertabgarh States of Rajputana, where considerable numbers are still settled. Their headquarters is at Sagwara, near Dongarpur. In Damoh the Umre Banias formerly cultivated the al-plant, which yielded a well-known dye, and hence lost caste, as in soaking the roots of the plant to extract the dye the numerous insects in them are necessarily destroyed. The Dosar subcaste are a branch of the Umre, who allow widow-remarriage. 


Dosar, Dusra Bania: 

The original name is Dusra or second and they are ab section of the Ummar Banias, who were so called because they permit widows to make a second marriage. Their home is the Ganga-Jamuna Doab and Oudh, and in the UP they are classed as an inferior subcaste of the Ummars. Here they say that the Ummars are their elder brothers. They have 3 sections, the Doab, Oudh or Allahabad country. They have exogamous sections; instances of these are Gangaparai, a native of Oudh; Sagarah, a resident of Saugor; Makraha, a seller of makka or maize, and Tamakhuha, a tobacco- seller. The caste are mainly shopkeepers, and they deal in gold and silver ornaments, as well as grain, tobacco and all kinds of groceries. 

Porwal Vanya:

The origins of the Porwals/Porawals is unknown, but judging from the name this may be in Rajputana.Among the Porwars the Samaiya or Channagri form a separate Jain group. Among the Porwars themselves there is a social subdivision between the Ath Sake and the Chao Sake; the former will not permit marriage of persons related more nearly than eight degrees, while the latter permit it after four degrees. The Ath Sake have the higher position, and if one of them marries a Chao Sake he is degraded to that group. Besides this the Powars have a inferior division called Benaika, which consists of the offspring of irregular unions. Persons who have committed a caste offense and caanot pay the fine, also go into this subcaste. The Powar/Pawar have 12 gotras or main sections, and each gotra is supposed to have 12 muls or subsections. The Po(r)wars abstain from eating flesh or drinking liquor. They have a panchayat and impose penalties for offenses against caste rules, such as the killing of any living thing, unchastity or adultery, theft or other bad conduct. They are generally engaged in the trade of grain, ghi, and other staples. Sveral of them are well to do. 

Maheshwari Vanya: 

Also called Maheshri or Meshri Marwaris. The name is said to be derived from Maheshwar, an ancient town on the Nerbudda, near Indore. But some of them say that original home is in Bikaner, and tell a story to the effect that their ancestor was a Raja: Raja Khadgal Sen of Khandela was blessed with a son Sujankunwar after a yagnya was performed. The rishis (priests) who did the yagnya warned the king that this son of his should not be allowed to go East. When Sujankunwar grew he inherited the kingdom. King Khadgal Sen himself retired. Not heeding the advice of the priests he proceeded with his 72 Umraons towards east. Seeing the priests performing yagnya Sujankunwar asked his Umraons to disturb it. For this deed of theirs the priests made them all in statues. On hearing the news Khadgal Sen along with his queens killed themselves. Wife of Sujankunwar Chandrawati, along with the wives of all the Umraons went to the place where their husbands were made into statues. They pleaded with the priests to reconvert their husbands to live form. The priests showed their inability to take back the curse. They, however, advised these women to pray with Lord Shiva and Parvatiji for bringing these statues back to life. Lord Shiva and Parvatiji were impressed by the prayers and gave life to all the statues. They were also asked to leave their Kshatriya tradition and convert to Vaisyas. The priests on whose curse the Umraons were made into statues were Parashar (Pareek), Dadhichi (Dahiya), Gautam (Gurjar Gaud), Khandik (Khandelwal), Sukumarg (Sukuwal) and Sarsur (Sarswat). The priests asked the Lord as to how their yagnyas would materialise and who will save them from the plunderers. The Lord asked them that each of the six priests should take 12 Umraons as their disciples and these Umraons will keep on giving you alms. The descendent of these 72 Vaisya families will always be with you to take care. From then these 72 families were called Maheshwaris taking the name from Lord Mahesh or Lord Shiva. These 72 families with their surnames (khaps) formed the primary Maheshwari list of surnames. Later their were subdivisions and from amongst these 72 surnames their were more sub-surnames (up-khaps), the names of which to appear to be titular or territorial. It was in this way that with the blessing of Lord Mahesh the formation of Maheshwaris was done on the ninth day of the Jaishtha month. Later 5 more families from the Kshatriyas joined the Maheshwaris. It is said that the ancesters of Maheshwari Samaj originally were Kshatrya, who were converted to Vaishya. In Gujarat the name Maheshwari appears to be used for all Banias who are not jain, including the other important Hindu subcastes. This is somewhat peculiar and perhaps it shows that many of the local subcastes are of recent formation. Though they profess to be named after Siva, they are Vaishnavas. The Maheshris alos have the Rajput custom of sending a cocoanut as a symbol of a proposal of marriage. In Nimar the Maheshri Banias say they belong to the Dhakar subcaste, a name which usually means illegitimate, though they themselves explained that is derived from a place Dhakargarh, from which they migrated. Meshri Marwaris are from Marwar. Meshri is a short form of Maheshvari that is worshippers of Maheshvar or the Great God. They are staunch worshippers of Shiv, and say that Shiv restored them to life after they had been turned into stone by a saint whose hermitage hunger forced them to plunder. They are said to have come from Marwar and settled in Ahmadnagar about two hundred years ago. The names in common use among men are Ambadas, Bijaram, Gopaldas, Lachhiram. Mayaniram, Mangaldas, Otarari, Ramsuk and Savairam, and among women, Gangabai, Jamnabai Mathurabai, Pritabai and Yamunabai. The men add Shetji or Shahaii to their names, and their surnames are Aju, Babari, Baladave, Bajaj, Batad, Bang, Bhadade, Bhandari, Bhutade, Buvi, Byahani, Dage, Darag, Dramani, Gelada, Gilade, Hede, Judani, Jakhote, Jhanvar, Jodar, Jval, Kalya, Kakani, Kavare, Khadalaya, Kathiye, Lada, Loya, Lakhote, Lohati, Madhane, Malavi, Malu, Miniyar, Mintri, Modani, Mudane, Mundade, Sadade, Shikachi, Soni, Totale and Tosanivar. Persons bearing the same surnames cannot inter-marry. Their home is Marwar, and their family-god is Balaji of Tirupati in North Arkot. In appearance, dwelling, food, drink, dress, character, calling and position they do not differ from Osval Marwaris. They are religious, worshipping their family-god Balaji or Vyankoba of Tirupati among other Brahmanic gods, and keeping all Hindu fasts and feasts. Their priest is a Deccan Brahman who is asked to officiate at their death and marriage ceremonies. Though they belong to the Shaiv sect, they worship Vishnu and visit all sacred places. They are bound together by a strong caste-feeling and settle social disputes according to the opinion of their caste-men under the presidency of the council or panch. The 72 khaps or clans with further subdivisions/surnames are: 
Aagsoond (Aagsoond) 
Agiwal (Agiwal) 
Ajmera (Ajmera, Bhagat, Bhagrutya, Dabkodya, Dauda, Dhol, Dholesarya ) 
Asawa (Asawa) 
Atal (Atal, Gauthniwal) 
Baheti (Agsund, Amrapal, Babdauta, Badha, Badhani, Badolya, Baghala, Baheti, Baraudia, Basani, Batadia, Bedchiwal, Bediwal, Bilavadya, Boob, Bugtalya, Charkha, Daalya, Dalya, Dargad, Dhagra, Dhanad, Dharani, Dhaul, Dhenaut, Dhirani, Dhoonwal, Dongra, Durani, Gandharia, Gandhi, Garviya, Gaukanya, ) 
Bajaj (Bajaj, Behadaya, Chamur, Dharuka, Gatooka) 
Bal(a)di (Baladi) 
Baldua (Baldua, Beriwal) 
Bang(ur) 
Bangurad (Bangurad) 
Bhattar (Balwani, Beesa, Bhattar, Bhichhoo, Bisani, Gandhi, ) 
Bihani (Bachani, Badahka) 
Birla (Badaliya, Birla, Gatthya) 
Boob (Boob, Boradya) 
Bhandari (Bhakava, Bhandari, Bhookya, Gaura) 
Bhansali (Bhansali) 
Bhootda or Bhutra (Bhootda, Chanchya, Chowdhary, Devdattani, Devgattani ) 
Bhuraria (Bhoongarya, Bhuraria, Boob) 
Bidadi or Bidada (Bidadi) 
Bihani (Bihani) 
Birla (Gatthya, Gauriya ) 
Bung (Bung, Chheetarka) 
Chandak (Bhaiya, Bhishani, Bihani, Chandak, Gaurani) 
Chhaparwal (Chhaparwal, Dujara, Dusaj ) 
Chechani (Chechani, Dudani) 
Chokhda (Chokhda) 
Daad (Daad, Daadarya) 
Daga (Bhojani, Bihani, Daga, Dammani, Darabarya, Doonda, Gaurani) 
Darak (Chowdhary, Darak) 
Devpura Dewpuri (Devpura) 
Dhoopad (Dhoopad) 
Dhoot (Dhoot) 
Enani (Enani) 
Gadeeya (Chaudary, Gadeeya) 
Gagrani (Bawrechya, Daudya, Gagad, Gagrani ) 
Gattani (Gattani) 
Gilda (Gahlda) 
Heda 
Hurkat (Bhaulani, Chowdhary) 
Jaju 
Jakhetia (Bhuvaniwal) 
Jhanwar (Bhagat, Chaudari, Dani, Gahalwal) 
Kacholya 
Kalantri 
Kankani 
Karwa 
Kasat 
Khator 
Lahoti 
Kabra (Athareya, Bhagat, Dhol, ) 
Kahalya (Bahadka, Chahadka) 
Kalani (Gattani) 
Khatwad (Bhala, Bhuria, Bhutiya, Gahalda, Gandhi) 
Laddha (Atthasanya, Bhaakrodya, Chowdhary, Dagadya, Dangda, Dharani) 
Lakhotia (Bhaiya) 
Maalpani (Bhoora) 
Maloo (Chowdhary) 
Maniyaar (Baraghu) 
Manoondhanya /Mandhanya(Chowdhary) 
Mandovara (Dholesarya) 
Modani (Bamb) 
Mundhra (Aladia, Ateranya, Athani, Baldiya, Bareefa, Bavari, Bhakaraani, Bharani, Bhaulani, Chamadya, Chamakya, Chhotapasari, Chowdhary, Damalka, Daudya, Dhedhaya, Gablani, Gaurani) 
Naulakha 
Nawal 
Navdhar (Dhanani, Dharani, Dheeran, Dheerani, Dhrani, Dhudhani)#Nyati (Dandi, Fofaliya) 
Palaud /Phalod (Bhakad, Chavandya, Chawata, Chitlangya, Daudya, Fofaliya, Galedha) 
Partani (Daagdya) 
Porvaar or Parwal (Daagadya) 
Rathi (Aafaani, Akhe Singot, Arajanani, Baajra, Baabecha, Baapal, Bachani , Badhani, Bagra, Bahgatani, Banaani, Basdevani,Bejara, Bekat, Bekhatani, Bhaag Chandot, Bhaiya, Bhakarani, Bhatani, Bhaulani, Bhichalati, Bhojani, Bilya, Binnani, Bisatani, Brijvasi, Bursalpuriya, Chapsani, Chaturbhubhot, Chaturbhujani, Chaukhani, Chauthani, Chowdhary, Dammani, Dasvani, Dedawat, Deshvani, Devgattani, Devraajani, Dhamaani, Dhagdawat, Dhanani, Dooddhani, Doudmootha, Dudawat , Dwarakani, Faafat, Fateh Singod, Gaandi, Gagani) 
Sarda (Bhaangadya, Bhalika, Chaudary, Daadalya) 
Sikchi 
Sodhani (Dakheda, Dantaal, Dhouli) 
Somani (Aasofa, Baagri, Balepota) 
Soni (Bhanawat ) 
Tapadya /Taparia (Chhachhya) 
Tawri (Bhakaraeece, Bhojani) 
Toshniwal (Bhakraudya, Chenarya, Daga, Darna, Damdi, Das) 
Totla 

Nema Bania:

The Nema are most largely returned from Central India, and are pobably a Bundelkhand group. The origin of the name is obscure; the suggestion that it comes from Nimar appears to b untenable, as there are very few Nemas in that District. They are divided into Bisas and Dasas. There also appears to a third group of Pachas or fives who appear to be the offspring of kept women. After some generations after the Pachas are promoted into the Dasa group. The Bisa and Dasa groups do not intermarry but take foo together. There is a saying about them: “Where a sheep grazes or a Nema trades, what is there left for anybody else?”. 

Agrawal Vanya:

Including among the Vaish community, the leading Agarwal Race is perhaps the most ancient race from the historical point of view which has been maintaining its majority for more than a thousand years in the major part of Northern India from Punjab to Rajasthan to Bihar. This is genraly considered to be the highest and most important subdivision of the Banias. The original person of Agarwal race who was founder founder of Agaray Republic is famous by the name of Maharaja Agarsen. The chief city of this republic was Agroha whose former remains are scattered in a wide area along Hisar-Sirsa road in Haryana in the Northwest, 13 miles from the city of Hisar. 

There are many rumors prevalent about Maharaja Agarsen, which indicates his time about 1300-1400B.C. But the famous archeologist and historians Late Dr.Vasudev Sharan Agarwal has discovered after research that the Ageay Republic was present at the time of Alexander and its founder Maharaja Agarsen was famous among the Lichci's of the ancient Vaishali Republic. In 600 B.C. Magadh Emperor “Azat Shatru” demolished Vaishali in a terrible war. It is said that it was the most terrible and destroying war after the battle of Maharabharat. Vaishali was again demolished twice after 150 or 200 years even after this. It is guessed that between the first and second demolition under the leader ship of Licchvi, Agrakumar. Seventeen Lichhvi of different family did no appreciate autocratic system & crossed the states governed by the king. They came in this Western Anchak and settled there. They founded an Agray Republic on the lines of the Vaishali Republic, which was governed by Agrakumar with leaders of 18 families or family representatives. These leaders also elected the head of the republic for the whole life from among them. Maharaja Agrakumar adopted the place of Maharaja Agarsen and became its first President. Another account is that the 17 sons of Agar Sen married the 17 daughters of Basuki, the king of the Nagas or snakes. The Agarwals for this reason will never molest or kill a snake and some paint pictures of snakes on either side of the outside of their houses, and make offerings of fruit and flowers before them. Raja Agar Sen is said to have ruled over both Agra and Agroha. The country around Delhi and Agra is their home, and the shrine of the tutelary goddess of some of the Agarwals is near Delhi in Mahaur. Like other banias they are divided into the Bisa and Dasa or 20 and 10 subivisions, and marry amongst themselves. The Bisa rank higher than the Dasa, the latter onsidered to have some flaw in their pedigree, such as descent from a remarried widow. The Dasas are sometimes said to be the descendants of the maidservants who accompanied the 17 Naga princesses on their marriages to the sons of Raja Agar Sen. A third division has now come into existence, the Pancha or fives. The divisions are endogamous, but a man who cannot obtain a wife from his own group will marry in a lower group. The Agarwalas are divided into 17 and a halve gotras, from the 17 sons of Agra Sen. The extra half gotra is accounted for by a legend, but it probably has in reality to do with illegimate descent. The remarriage of widows is prohibited, and divorce is not recognised. The name of the family was Oogra. Perhaps Agarkumar or Maharaja Agarsen might have related to this Oogra family. Even to day name Ugrasen is general among Agarwal Jains.It is the impression that after Maharaja Agarsen this office was entrusted to other respectable or elected great man to the chief member of Aroha families.With the lapse of long period of time and due to many political changes, the one time prosperous town of Agroha was buried underneath. Since the year 1975 Archeological Department of India started digging this place with the help of Agarwal Community. On excavation of a 60 feet high mond of Agoha. 52 coins of mixed silver and copper on which there are the figures of an ox in Front, the figure of lion behind or there is also a tree of Chatya have been found. There is inscribed the phrase"Janpadas Agachh of Angodh"in Brahini Lipi on the coins. According to Pandit Parmanand Shastri all above words are indicator of Angodhak and of being follower of Jainism. By excavating this maund, a statue of Jin and a statue of "Tirthankar" or" Parshavenath" with a hood has been found. Some Jain statues have also been found some years before from the fort of Hansi at the distance of five miles from Agroha. The remains of three cities have also been found on one above another of the time of the most ancient habitation and have been estimated from 5th to 3rd B.C. by the Archeologists. This city was demolished three times; its final demolition was done by 11th-12th century by Muslims invaders by means of throwing fire. After this Agroha could never be inherited and agroha families, which were known as Agarwals, spread in whole of the Northern India and at present they are living in whole of the world. This town is being developed again. Today it is a very attractive and charming pligrimage center and we feel this place must be as prosperous as it was before five thousand years ago. In the beginning Maharaja Agrasen was follower of the Sanatan Dharma and to please Lord Vishnu he performed 17 great animal Sacrifice Yagyas with the advice of Brahmin Guru. It is a rumor that during the course of 18th yagyas the younger queen Padmavati, who was the princes of Naagvansh and was called Sudravati by her second name.. The Agarah families gradually gave up Kshatriya increnation adopted "Vaishya" nature In the nature of vaniks, the Agarwal’s adopted the trade of such articles in which they can avoid solid violence i.e. grains, kirana, bajaja, kaserth, jewellery and mahajani etc. The Family Goddess of Agarwals is MAHALAKSHMI. The only hand written copy of "Mahalakshmi fast story" has been available from the personal library of Bhartendu Babu Harishchandra an inhabitant of Kashi. According to this book Maharaja Agrasen was the unique devotee of Goddess Mahalakshmi. He performed a severe penance with his family at the time of long time famine in the kingdom due to no rains or less rains. By pleasing the goddess Lakshmi with his meditation. He filled the kingdom with prosperity and wealth. This statement has been made in the "Peranik Rupak" method of which, the real meaning is the Maharaja Agarsen boldly faced the contrary conditions of famine and compensated the loss of rain by digging wells, tanks etc. in order to irrigate the whole kingdom and he himself labored in the construction works. Moreover, to develop the trade industry and other occupation, he tried whole-heartedly. By this meditation Maharaja Agarsen pleased the Goddess Mahalakshmi. As a result, Agoha Republic began to be counted among the leading prosperous nations. 

The most ancient written statement belongs to Vikrami-Sambat 1189 in which a well known Haryanavi Agarwal poet Bibuddha Sridhar has written a description of an Agarwal City Seth of Yoginipur (DELHI) in the praise of an essay poetry book in old deformed language. The historians are not known up to this time such an ancient writing of any other document of any other race including in the vaish community. It is a clear proof of this fact that among the Vaish Community Agarwal community has remained most ancient and prosperous and the Agarwal Seths have kept equal interest in earning money and composing literature and they have been patrons and guardians of the literary people. The most ancient use of Gotra with name belongs to 1302 Vikrami Sambat e.g,"Agrothkanraye Gohit Gotre..." In the writings of after time, the use of gotra with name generally appears to be made. To Dr. Swarajmani Agarwal all the writing enclosed all the Agarwal Bandhu whether they are Kuber in wealth or they are respectable famous literary man or poets were followers of Jainism. From this we conclude that it will not be wrong to say those 700-800 years before the Agarwal community or its major part was follower of Jainism. The background of the non-violence to be kind to the living animals and vegetarian seems to be a witness of this very fact. The birth anniversary of Maharaja Agarsen is celebrated on first day of Ashwin Shukla, but no historic or puranik background is available up to this time. It is said that being asked by a Purohit of an Agarwal Shreshtha that when the birth anniversary of Maharaja Agarsen should be celebrated, the wise Pandit advised that his birth anniversary on first date after Ashwin Shukla may be celebrated Perhaps, the story of Mahalakshmi fast might have beam composed by this very Purohit. Whatever the case may be, but the Birth Anniversary of original founder Maharaja Agarsen is celebrated by agarwal society on first date of Ashwin Shukla with great zeal and enthusiam. Maharaja Agarsen is regarded a symbol of racial love and cooperation. The first date of Ashwin-Shukla is assigned to his sacred memory. We wish that his ideals might always inspire Agarwal race. Our country is fortunate to give birth to such wonder person as Maharaja Agarsen about 5000 years ago. It is said that Maharaj Agrasen, the king of Agroha, was born to king Vallabh of Pratapnagar some 5182 years back. Maharaj Agrasen, was king of great administrative skill. His concepts of kingdom and the duties of the king towards his subjects have evolved him as a centurial man. Equality, Nationalism, Socialism and Non-Violence were the principles which formed the backbone of his kingship. Maharaj Agrasen established the republican state of Agroha. Agroha consisted of 18 state units. The head of each state unit was given a gotra. All the residents of that particular state unit were identified by that gotra. It was maintained by Maharaj Agrasen that a nupital alliance could not take place in the same gotra. That is a girl of "Goel" gotra could not marry a "Goel boy"', but could be married in any of the other 17 Gotra. This rule enunciated by Maharaj Agrasen promoted harmony and brotherhood among all the 18 Gotra represented by state units. This facilitated promotion of unity and nationalism among the state units. Aren Bansal Bhandal Bindal Dharan Gargal Goel, Goyal Goen Jindel Kansal Kuchhal Mangal Mittal Mridkul Nagal Singhal Tayal Tingal 


Agrahari Bania:

Like that of the Agarwala, their name has been connected with the Agra and Agroha. There is no doubt that the 2 castes are closely connected and Mr. Nesfeld suggests that the 2 groups must have been sections of one and the same caste which quarreled on some trifling matter connected with cooking or eating, and have remained separate since. The are principally dealers in provisions, and they have acquired some discredit as compared to their kinsfolk the Agarwalas. 

 Ajudhiabasi (Audhia) Bania:

They are form Ajodhia, the old name of Oudh. Outsiders often shorten the name to Audhia, but this is regurlay applied to a criminal class, who may have derived from the Ajudhiabasi Banias, but are now quite distinct from them. Though Oudh was their original home they are now fairly numerous in Kanpur and Bundelkhand, and from here the Central Provinces. Their principal goddess is Devi, and at the Dasahra festival they offer a goat to her. 

Asathi Bania:

They say their original home was the Tikamgrah State in Bundelkhand. They do not rank very high, and are sometimes said to be the descendants of an Ahir who became Bania. It is told that the Asathis first bury their dead, in accordance presumably with a former practice, and then exhume and burn the bodies; and there is a saying: Ardha jale, ardha gare Jinka nam Asathi pare or: “He who is an Asathi is half buried and half burn.”. But this practice, if it ever really existed, has now been abandoned. 

Charnagri Bania, Samiya Bania:

They ar chiefly in the Damoh and Chhindwara Districts. They are practically all derived from the Porwal banias. And formerly would sometimes give their daughters to Porwars in marriage. Like other Bania subcastes they are divided into Bisa and Dasa, the Dasa being of iregular descent. Intermarriage between the 2 sections occasionally occurs. 

Gahoi Bania:

Their home is the Bhundelkhand county, and they are found in Saugor, Karaghpur, Jubbulpore and Narsinghpur Districts. The subcaste has 12 gotras or sections and 72 al or anken, which are subsections of the gotras. Several of the al names appear to be of a titular or totemistic character, as Mor peacock, Sohania beautiful, Nagaria a drummer, Paharia a hillman, Matele the name of a village headman in Budelkhand, Piparvania from the pipal tree, Dadaria a singer. They are considered to be cunning in business, and a proverb says that a Gahoi will deceive even his own father. 

Golapurab Bania, Golahre:

Its distribution is nearly the same as the Gahois, and it is probably also a Bundelkhand group. They will take food cooked without water from the Nema subcaste. According to one story the Golapurabs are the offspring of a Purabia, that is probably a bais rajput, by a kept woman of the Ahir caste. This fits well with the name as Golak means a bastard, and the termination purab would be from Purabia; but is probably th name which has given rise to the story, or at any rate the supposed descent from a Purabia. In Up a small subcaste called Golahre exists, belonging to Jhansi District. There is no doubt that this group is the same as the Golapurabs, and Mr. Crooke derives the name from gola, a grain-mart, which seems more probable than the derivation suggested above. In Agra there is a cultivating caste also called Golapurab. 

Lad Vanya :

Lad Vanis as their name seems to show that they came to Ahmadnagar from south Gujarat whose old name (A.D. 150) was Lad or Lat Desh. The names in common use among men and women do not differ from those used by local Hindus. Their surnames are Balate, Chavan, Ciiikhale Chaudhari, Gosavi, Jhare, Karade, Khele, Modi, Paithankar and Shete. Their family-gods are Devi of Tuljapur, Mahadey of Shingnapur in Satara, and Vithoba of Pandharpur in Sholapur. Their caste deity is Ashapuri or Ashnai nera Petlad. Sameness of family-stock but not sameness of surname is a bar to marriage. They are religious people, worshipping their family and other Brahmanic gods, and visiting holy places. Their priest is a Deshasth/Khedawal Brahman whom, they ask to officiate at their leading ceremonies. Their customs are partly like those of Kunbis and partly like those of Brahmans, except that the texts are in ordinary and not in Vedic Sanskrit. Social disputes are settled at meetings and breaches of social discipline are punished with fines which are generally spent on caste-feasts. Like other Banias they are divided into the Bisa and Dasa groups or 20s and 10s, the Dasa being of irregular descent. Gujarat Vanis include the two divisions of Vadnagari and Visnagari Vanis, and claim descent from the Vaishyas, the third of the four traditional Hindu tribes. The names in common use among men arc Damodardas, Dwarkadas, Haridas, Krishnadas, Madhavdas, Prabhudas, Vallabhdas, Vishnudas, Vithaldas and Uttamdas; and among women Bhagirthibai, Jamnabai, Krishnabai, Kaveribai, Motibai, Rakhamabai, Sundarabai and Vithabai. They have no surnames. Their family-god is Vyankatesh or Balaji of Tirupati. Some are Vadnagars and others Visnagars from the towns of those names in north Gujarat. All in the district are said to belong to the Vishe division of these two classes. The two classes eat together but do not inter-marry. As a rule they are wheat-coloured, regular and delicate-featured and weak, the women being fairer than the men. Their home-tongue is Gujarati, but out-of-doors they speak Marathi. They are religious, worshipping all Brahmanic gods and keeping all Hindu fasts and feasts. Their family-gods are Balaji or Vyankoba of Tirupati in North Arkot and Vithoba of Pandharpur, and they make pilgrimages to the leading Hindu sacred places. Their priest is a Gujarati Brahman, and in his absence a Deshasth Brahman is asked to officiate at their marriage and death ceremonies. They belong to the Vallabhacharya sect. Every male and female should receive religious instruction from the teacher and repeat the verse or mantra which the teacher whispers into the ear of the initiated. They bow before him and offer him flowers and sandal paste. They believe in sooth-saying and astrology, but profess not to believe in witch-craft, omens or evil spirits. Of the sixteen Brahman ceremonies or sanskars they perform the naming, hair- clipping, marriage, puberty and death ceremonies. The details on each of these occasions differ little from those in use among local Brahmans. When a boy begins to learn to write, he is taken to school on a lucky day with music and a band of friends. In the name of Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, he lays before the slate, flowers, sandal paste, vermilion and turmeric powder, sweetmeats, with betel leaves and nuts and a coconut, and bows to the slate. Packets of sweetmeats are handed among the schoolboys. The teacher makes the boy write Om namas siddham, corrupted into O na ma si dham, that is, Bow to the perfect, and is presented with a roll of betel leaves, nuts and money, and the learning ceremony or Sarasvati pujan is over. Unlike local Brahmans, girls worship the goddess of fortune or mangalagauri before, and never after, they are married. Early marriage is allowed and practised, widow marriage and polygamy are forbidden on pain of loss of caste; polyandry is unknown. They have a caste council and settle social disputes at its meetings. Breaches of caste discipline are punished with fine and the decisions of the council are obeyed on pain of loss of caste. 

Gujarat Jains, also called Shravaks. According to their own account they formerly dwelt in Oudh and accepted Jainism along with Bharat, a Solar Kshatriya, the great disciple of Vardhamansvami. They are called Gujars because after leaving Oudh they settled in Gujarat. The names in common use among men and women are the same as those used by Vaishnav Gujars and the men add shetji or master and bhoyiji or brother to their names. Their surnames are Bhandari, Ganchi, Mulavera, Nanavati, Patu, Saraph, Shaha and Vakhariya. Persons bearing the same surnames may not inter-marry. Their home-tongue is Gujarati, and their family-god is Parasnath. They marry among themselves. In appearance and habits they do not differ from Gujar Vanis. They rank with Vaishnav Gujars though neither class eats from the other. They are religious, and they belong to the Digambar sect. Their priest is a Gujarat Brahman whom they ask to officiate at their marriage ceremonies. They have a caste council and settle social disputes at meetings of the caste without any reference to their religious teacher. Breaches of social discipline are punished with loss of caste. Common surnames: Bhandari, Ganchi, Mulavera, Nanavati, Patu, Saraph, Shaha, and Vakhariya. 

Sansari Jangam

Sansari Jangams, or secular Lingayats, are found in Gujarat, Maharastra, MP. They are said to have come from Karnataka, or Andhra Pradesh but when or why is not known. Like the Lingayats of Dharwar and Bijapur, they revere the founder of the Lingayat sect who lived at Kalyan, a hundred miles west of Hyderabad in the Deccan during the reign of the Kalachurya king Bijjal (1156). The story of Basav's life which is known to most Sansari Jangams is taken from the Basav Puran. They say that Basvacharya or Basveshyar, that is Basav, was born of Brahman parents, who after long remaining childless were rewarded by Shiv, whom they constantly worshipped, with the promise of a son. The mother was with child for three years. before the child was born, Shiv appeared to the mother in a dream and told her to call the child Basav, the Kanarese name for Nandi, Shiv's bull. Hence it was believed that in Basav the god Nandi had become flesh. Miracles were not wanting to conform this belief. When he was about eight years old, Basav's father wished to gird the boy with the sacred thread. Basav refused as if he wore the thread he must learn the sun-hymn or gayatri. For this act of disobedience Basav was driven from his father's house. He went to Kalyan accompanied by his sister and married a daughter of the king's minister who was his maternal uncle. He improved his prospects at court by giving his sister in marriage to king Bijjal. After the death of his father-in-law Basav became Prime minister. He made use of his high position to spread his new doctrines and gathered round him large numbers of all castes. The king grew jealous of Basav's power, and put out the eyes of three of Basav's staunchest followers. Basav ordered another of his followers to avenge the wrong done to the three Lingayats, cursed Kalyan and withdrew to Sangameshvar a hundred miles west of Bellari, where he was absorbed into the ling. According to the Jain books the king, distrusting Basav's power and influence, sent troops against him but was defeated and afterwards poisoned by Basav. On hearing of his father's death Rai Murari, the king's son, came against Basav who fled to Ulvi in North Kanara, was pursued, and in despair threw himself into a well. According to the books, Basav's chief doctrines were tenderness for animal life, doing away caste distinctions and ceremonial impurities. and admitting women to religious and social equality with men. If they were ever carried into practical life these doctrines have been greatly modified not only in Ahmadnagar but in Bijapur, Dharwar and other Kanarese districts where Lingayats are probably as numerous and as powerful as they ever were. Lingayats are divided into laymen and priests or Jangams, and the priests are divided into secular and religious priests who eat together and inter- marry. The names in common use among men are Bhau, Bhujang. Sambhu, Shivrudra and Vasurupaksh; and among women Bhagirathi Bhima, Girja, Mathura and Saku. Men add appa and women add bai to their names. Their surnames are Agvale, Bagle, Bhinge, Chillawant, Kavde, Kamane, Kanade, Pancham, Pakhale, Pathre, Takalkar and Vibbute. The Kanada are from Canara, the Kanali from a forrest called Takali, Persons bearing the same surname cannot inter-marry. They are dark, strong and regular-featured and speak Marathi both at home and abroad. Their family gods are Malikarjun of Shri Shailya, Nagoba of Vadole in Ahmadnagar, Basveshvar of Kalyan and Virbhadra. They worship Shiv's emblem or ling and keep all Hindu fasts and feasts. They hold Mahadev in great respect and make pilgrimages to Banaras, Pandharpur and Tuljapur. They have a caste council and settle social disputes at caste meetings. Breaches of social rules are punished by fines which generally take the form of a caste-feast. They do not intermarry with other Banias, but retain the name and customs of them. 

Bohra:

The Bohra community includes both Hindus and Muhammadans. The name is probably derived from Hindi byohara, a trader, or it may be derived from the Gujarati ‘vohorvu’, or ‘to trade’ means ‘One who is true to the ethical principles of business’). By another account Bohra is from Buha, a column in military array, and it is said that in the United provinces a Buha is still drawn and worshipped on Dashera day. 

The Muhamaddan branch originated when a certain Abdullah from Yemen arrived in Cambay in AD 1067 and converted the king Sidhraj of Anhilvada Patan in Gujarat, and he with numbers of his subjects embraced the faith. An old account says:” The Bohra are an inferior set of travelling merchants. The inside of a Bohra’s box is like that of an English country shop; spelling-books, prayer-books, lavender-water, soap, tapes, scissors, knives, needles and thread make but a small part of te variety.” (Crooke, edition of Hobson-Jobson, art Bohra). 

The Hindu branch is mainly found in Punjab and Kashmir, where they have the following surnames: Bindroo, Bhandari, Chapori, Chota, Hori, Japoo, Kath, Khah, Ledoo, Mantoo, Matho, Nadroo, Nathu, Puri, Suri, Zatoo. 

Bengali Vanya

Use names of: Dasgupta, Das, Dattagupta, Datta , Gupta, Majumdar, Mallik, Ray, Raymajumdar, Sarkar, Sengupta, Sen, Senmajumdar, Senray, Laha , Maiti ,Mandal , Niyogi , Pal ,Saha 

Konkani Bania:

Also Kunams or Kunbi Vanis, or Maratha traders. The names in common use among men are Bapu, Balvant, Dhondu, Govind and Rania; and among women, Bhagirathi, Chimani, Ganga, Manu, Sakhi, Salu and Thaki. They add the word shet or merchant to the names of men and bai to the names of women. Their surnames are Avari, Ahir, Bodake, Borule, Dandnaik, Dhavare, Golade, Gujar, Hagvane, Holkar, Jagdale, Kadekar, Kalaskar, Kale, Kasid. Mitkari, Motale, Nandure, Nikam, Pabbore, Pansambal, Sajgure, Sabele, Sadavarte, Todekari, Vaskar,Yevari etc. Persons bearing the same surname cannot inter-marry. Their family-gods are Bahiroba of Sonari in Amadnagar, Devi of Tuljapur and of Rasin in Ahmadnagar, Dayal Malik in the town of Ahmadnagar, Khandoba of Jejuri near Pune, and Vyankatesh of Tirupati in North Arkot. They have two divisions, one which wears and one which does not wear the ling, and who differ in no points except that the ling-wearers rub their brows with cowdung ashes. They eat together and intermarry. They do not differ from local Maratha, Kunbis in appearance or dress. They are a religious people, worshipping all Brahmanic gods and keeping all Hindu fasts and feasts. They almost have equal reverence to Shiv and Vishnu and go on pilgrimage to Alandi, Banaras, Jejuri, Tuljapur and Tirupati. The priest of those who wear the ling is a Jangam, but they also call a Brahman to their chief ceremonies. They are Sampradais or followers of Tukaram who lived in the seventeenth century, wear rosaries of basil beads, and repeat his couplets or abhangs in honour of Vithoba of Pandharpur. Their religious teacher is a devotee of Vithoba and a follower of Tukaram, whom they bow and offer un-cooked food, flower and sandal paste. They worship local gods, and believe in witch-craft, sooth-saying, and spirits, whom they scare by repeating prayers and with the help of Deyrushis or Hindu exorcists. The followers of Tukararn burn their dead and mourn ten days; lingwearers bury with Lingayat rites but hold after-death ceremonies in Brahman fashion. They have a caste council or panch, and settle social disputes at meetings of caste-men under the control of the council. A head-man, called shetya, attends marriages, and the fathers of the bride and bridegroom, groom present him with betel and mark his brow with sandal paste, His office, is hereditary, and traders consult him on trade questions. He fixes the market rates and all members of the community are forbidden to under-sell on pain of fine or loss of caste. The (96+) Divisions: (sometimes referred to as Marathas): Angane, Ahir, Angre, Avari, Babar, Bagrao, Bagwe, Bande, Bhagore, Bhagwat, Bhalekar, Bhogale, Bhoite, Bhorate, Bhoware, Bodake, Borule, Dabhade, Dadhe, Dalvi, Dandnaik, Darbare, Devkate, Dhamale, Dhamdhere, Dhavare, Dhawle, Dhekale, Dhone, Dhumak or Dhumal, Dhybar, Dige, Gaikwad, Gangnaik, Gavane (or Gavase), Ghatge, Golade, Gujar, Hagvane, Harane, Harphale, Holkar, Jagdale, Jagdhane, Jagtap, Kakde, Kadekar, Kalaskar, Kale, Kank, Kasid, Khadtare, Khadagale, Khaire, Kokate, Kshirsagar, Lad, Lokhande, Madhure, Mahadik, Mahakule, Malap, Malusare, Mane, Mhambar, Misal, Mitkari, Mohite, Motale, Mulik, Nalwade, Nandure, Nikam, Pabbore, Palande, Pansambal, Pansare, Parte (or Pathare or Phadtare), Palav, Pawar, Phakde, Phalke, Pingale, Pisal, Pudhare, Rane, Rasal, Renuse, Sabele, Sadavarte, Sajgure, Salav, Sambhare, Sawant, Shankpal, Shelar, Shirke, Shitole, Surve, Tawde, Teje, Thorat, Thote, Todekari, Tuwar, Ubale, Varade, Vaskar, Vichare, Wagh and Yevari. 

Komti Bania: 

The Marwari is essentially following similar mercantile pursuits to the Vaisya Komati of Peninsular India, and those of the Wani or Bani(a), to which the Komati add that of retail shopkeeping. All the Marwari of Rajputana adhere to the principle of reckoning their descent to a founder, and in their marriage ceremonies they abstain from blodd relationship, never marrying into their own gotra. Their widows never re-marry. The Banya or Komati merchants and bankers are generally of the Vaishnava sect, but some of them worship Siva. They are most numerous in Telingana (Andhra) and in Madras (Tamil Nadu). They are essentially shopkeepers, sellers of dry grains, cultivation, mercatile business. The Wani of the Western coast will only marry with the Komati Banya. They are in considerable numbers in the northern Andhra, adjoining Berar.. They seem to have come from Telaugana. The names in common use among men are Govinda, Rama, Vishnu and Vithoba; and among women Chima, Ganga, Lakshmi Rama and Yamuna. Their surnames are Bhingarkar, Chhet, Chitte Gandhekar, Konakam, Nimbalkar, Niradkar, Pankar, Sudal, Tanitar and Vadkar. Persons bearing the same surnames cannot inter-marry. Their home-tongue is Telugu, and the family-god is Balaji o Vyankatraman of Tirupati in North Arkot. They are divided into Jana, and Vani Komtis, the Janays weaving and selling sacred thread which the Vani Komtis neither weave nor sell. These two classes eat together but do not inter-marry. There is a third class of Kadu Komtis who eat but do not marry with the other Komtis. They are dark, strong, and flabby, with a round face and small lively eyes. Everyday they lay flowers, sandal pasta and food before the image of Vyankatraman of Tirupati, of Vithoba of Pandharpur, of Devi of Tuljapur, of Ganpati, of Khandoba of Jejur in Pune, and of Maruti, and keep all Hindu fasts and feasts. Their priest is a Telangi Brahman who lives in Pune, and visits their villages once a year, but does not take food at their hands. He officiates at their marriages and receives a yearly tribute in money from each of his followers. In his absence, local Brahmans are asked to take his place at their ceremonies and are much respected. The, make pilgrimages to Jejuri in Pune, Pandharpur in Sholapur and Tirupati in North Arkot. They are bound together by a strong caste feeling and settle social disputes, at meeting of caste-men. Smaller breaches of social rules are punished with fine and graver offences are referred to their religious teacher Krishnacharya whose decision is final and is obeyed on pain of loss of caste. 

Summarizing general Baniya names are:

Aadivarekar 
Aadvilkar 
Aagine 
Aagsoond (Aagsoond) 
Aagyan 
Aarvare or Arware 
Adarkar 
Agiwal (Agiwal) 
Aglave Alias Shirsat 
Ajmera (Ajmera, Bhagat, Bhagrutya, Dabkodya, Dauda, Dhol, Dholesarya ) 
Akhare 
Alave or Alwe 
Alekar 
Amonkar 
Andari 
Andurlekar 
Arde 
Ardekar 
Arsekar 
Asawa (Asawa) 
Atal (Atal, Gauthniwal) 
Athnikar 
Baheti (Agsund, Amrapal, Babdauta, Badha, Badhani, Badolya, Baghala, Baheti, Baraudia, Basani, Batadia, Bedchiwal, Bediwal, Bilavadya, Boob, Bugtalya, Charkha, Daalya, Dalya, Dargad, Dhagra, Dhanad, Dharani, Dhaul, Dhenaut, Dhirani, Dhoonwal, Dongra, Durani, Gandharia, Gandhi, Garviya, Gaukanya, ) 
Bajaj (Bajaj, Behadaya, Chamur, Dharuka, Gatooka) 
Bal(a)di (Baladi) 
Baldua (Baldua, Beriwal) 
Ballal 
Bamane 
Bande 
Bandekar 
Bandekar (Bandeshwar Kuldaivat) 
Bandilkar 
Bandivadekar 
Bandodkar 
Bane 
Bang(ur) 
Bangurad (Bangurad) 
Bapshetye 
Bashte 
Belvalkar 
Bendake 
Bendkhale 
Berde 
Betkar 
Bhalekar 
Bhanage 
Bhand 
Bhandage 
Bhandari (Bhakava, Bhandari, Bhookya, Gaura) 
Bhansali (Bhansali) 
Bhartu 
Bhat 
Bhattar (Balwani, Beesa, Bhattar, Bhichhoo, Bisani, Gandhi, ) 
Bhidaye 
Bhike 
Bhingarde 
Bhise 
Bhogate or Bhogte 
Bhompale 
Bhootda or Bhutra (Bhootda, Chanchya, Chowdhary, Devdattani, Devgattani ) 
Bhopale 
Bhuraria (Bhoongarya, Bhuraria, Boob) 
Bidadi or Bidada (Bidadi) 
Bidaye 
Bihani (Bihani, Bachani, Badahka) 
Bijam 
Bile 
Birge 
Birla (Badaliya, Birla, Gatthya, Gauriya) 
Bobhat or Bobhate 
Bolar 
Bolarkar 
Boloor 
Bondre 
Boob (Boob, Boradya) 
Borukar 
Budke 
Bundelkhande 
Bung (Bung, Chheetarka) 
Chandak (Bhaiya, Bhishani, Bihani, Chandak, Gaurani) 
Chanekar 
Charibadar 
Chechani (Chechani, Dudani) 
Chhaparwal (Chhaparwal, Dujara, Dusaj ) 
Chikhale or Chingale 
Chimshete 
Chirekar 
Choche 
Chodhari or Choudhari 
Chokhda (Chokhda) 
Chougule 
Churmure 
Daad (Daad, Daadarya) 
Daddhikar or Daddikar 
Daga (Bhojani, Bihani, Daga, Dammani, Darabarya, Doonda, Gaurani) 
Dakave 
Dali 
Dalvi 
Damushte 
Dandekar 
Dane 
Dange 
Dange Alias Dangi 
Darak (Chowdhary, Darak) 
Dashshetye 
Datekar 
Degvekar 
Deulkar 
Dev 
Develakar or Devlekar 
Devpura (Devpura) 
Dhadam or Dhadm 
Dhamanaskar 
Dharkadhe 
Dharme 
Dhavan 
Dhavjekar Alias Shiveskar 
Dhole 
Dhoopad (Dhoopad) 
Dhoot (Dhoot) 
Dhundur 
Dhuri 
Dicholkar 
Divkar Alias Divekar 
Dolas 
Duble 
Durve 
Ele 
Enani (Enani) 
Fulare 
Gad 
Gadeeya (Chaudary, Gadeeya) 
Gagrani (Bawrechya, Daudya, Gagad, Gagrani ) 
Gamsa 
Gandalkar 
Gandhi (a seller of scents: gandh) 
Gangan 
Gaonvas Alias Gaonvaskar 
Gattani (Gattani) 
Gaunskar 
Gavandalkar 
Gavankar or Gavaskar 
Ghogale 
Gholap 
Ghole 
Gilda (Gahlda) 
Goalbansi or Gowalbansi 
Govekar 
Goyal 
Gudekar 
Gujar 
Gunijan 
Harvey 
Hatkar 
Havaldar Alias Narvekar 
Heda 
Hegishte or Hegshetye 
Helekar 
Hevalkar 
Hinde 
Hivalkar 
Hosbetekar 
Hule 
Humbar 
Hurkat (Bhaulani, Chowdhary) 
Shetye 
Ingle 
Jadikar 
Jagushte 
Jaitapkar 
Jaitpal 
Jaju 
Jakhetia 
Jakhetia (Bhuvaniwal) 
Jamdar 
Jangal 
Jathar 
Jhanwar (Bhagat, Chaudari, Dani, Gahalwal) 
Jogale 
Jondhale 
Joshte 
Jungari 
Junre 
Juvekar 
Kabra (Athareya, Bhagat, Dhol, ) 
Kacholya 
Kahalya (Bahadka, Chahadka) 
Kajari 
Kalangutkar 
Kalani (Gattani) 
Kalantri 
Kalokhe 
Kalpekar (Bondre) 
Kalushte 
Kamerkar 
Kanade 
Kandanekar 
Kande 
Kandiyalkar Alias Dalal 
Kanekar 
Kangane 
Kangekar 
Kanhere 
Kanitkar 
Kankani 
Kapade or Kapadi 
Kapileshwar 
Karkote 
Karle 
Karmalkar 
Karpe 
Karwa 
Kasat 
Kastur 
Katkar 
Kavalekar 
Keni 
Kerkar 
Kesari 
Kesarkar 
Kesarwani 
Khade 
Khadiye or Khadye 
Khalap 
Khandekar 
Khandyalkar 
Khandyasankar 
Khanpne 
Kharare 
Khashre 
Khator 
Khatu 
Khatwad (Bhala, Bhuria, Bhutiya, Gahalda, Gandhi) 
Khavale 
Khedekar 
Khetal 
Khochare 
Khurgure 
Khurjubekar 
Kochikar or Kochkar 
Kode 
Kodnekar 
Kokankar 
Kokate 
Kolambekar Alias Gadkar 
Kolge 
Kolte 
Kolvenkar Alias Talavalikar 
Kolwankar 
Korgaonkar 
Koshte 
Kothare 
Kothavale 
Kudalkar 
Kudle 
Kudtalkar 
Kulshekar 

Kurdekar Kurtarkar Kushe Labdhe Lad Laddha (Atthasanya, Bhaakrodya, Chowdhary, Dagadya, Dangda, Dharani) Lahoti Lakeshree or Lakeshri Lakhotia (Bhaiya) Lanjekar Lede Lendi Lod Lodh Lonishte Lotlekar or Lotlikar Lubi Luman Maalpani (Bhoora) Madgaonkar Alias Khot Madkekar Mahajan Mahakal Majalekar Malik Malkar Maloo (Chowdhary) Mandalik Mandavkar Mandovara (Dholesarya) Manerkar Alias Govekar Alias Vaikar, Alias Narvekar Mangaonkar Manglorekar Alias Mangalorekar ,Nagvekar, Shet Maniyaar (Baraghu) Manjarekar Manoondhanya /Mandhanya(Chowdhary) Manushte Mapuskar Marathe Alias Tayshete Masurkar Mayekar Mhadadolkar Mhadeshwar Mhadgut Mhaiskar Mhap Mhapsekar Milkar or Mirkar Mishal Mobarkar Modani (Bamb) Modi Morajkar More Morya or Morye Mundhra (Aladia, Ateranya, Athani, Baldiya, Bareefa, Bavari, Bhakaraani, Bharani, Bhaulani, Chamadya, Chamakya, Chhotapasari, Chowdhary, Damalka, Daudya, Dhedhaya, Gablani, Gaurani) Mungale Mungi Munj Murkar Nagvekar Naik Naikdate Nalavade Namushte Nanche Alias Pawaskar Nandbansi Nanodkar Nar Narkar Alias Teli Narvekar or Narwekar Nasre Natekar Nath Naulakha Navre Nawal Navdhar (Dhanani, Dharani, Dheeran, Dheerani, Dhrani, Dhudhani) Nyati (Dandi, Fofaliya) Nayak Nerurkar Nevagi Nevarekar Nhavelkar Nikhangre or Nikharge Padte Pal Palaud /Phalod (Bhakad, Chavandya, Chawata, Chitlangya, Daudya, Fofaliya, Galedha) "The Plaud claim descent from a saint Pallava whose name is derived from pallava, or leaf, owing to his worshipping beneath the leaves of a banyan tree" (Rose 441). It is also a gotra of the Mair Rajputs. Palav Palkar Palyekar Pangam Pankar Parab Paradhi Paradkar Paramanand Parameshwaran Parkar Parsekar Parshetye Partani (Daagdya) Pashte Patade Patane Patankar Patgaonkar Pathare Patkar Patnekar Pavale Pawar Pawaskar Pednekar Pem Petra Phadthe Phalari Phayade Phondekar Phondge or Phondke Pilankar or Pilnekar Pilvankar Pokale or Pokle Pongurlekar Porvaar Parwal (Daagadya) Potade Potdar Povalekar Powar Prabhu Alias Parab Alias Kaysurkar Prasade Punagi Rane Rao Rathi (Aafaani, Akhe Singot, Arajanani, Baajra, Baabecha, Baapal, Bachani , Badhani, Bagra, Bahgatani, Banaani, Basdevani,Bejara, Bekat, Bekhatani, Bhaag Chandot, Bhaiya, Bhakarani, Bhatani, Bhaulani, Bhichalati, Bhojani, Bilya, Binnani, Bisatani, Brijvasi, Bursalpuriya, Chapsani, Chaturbhubhot, Chaturbhujani, Chaukhani, Chauthani, Chowdhary, Dammani, Dasvani, Dedawat, Deshvani, Devgattani, Devraajani, Dhamaani, Dhagdawat, Dhanani, Dooddhani, Doudmootha, Dudawat , Dwarakani, Faafat, Fateh Singod, Gaandi, Gagani) Ravale Reddy or Reddi Redij Revdekar Sadadalekar Sadrekar Sadrish Sadvelkar or Sadvilkar or Sadwelkar Sakre Salankhe Salgaonkar Samare or Sambare Sanade Alias Sande Sangale Sansare Sapale or Saple or Sapliye Sapte Saraf Sarang Sarda (Bhaangadya, Bhalika, Chaudary, Daadalya) Sardal Sarvankar Sathe Satose or Satosekar Satpute Savale Sawant Alias Samant Shelke Shenvi Shere Shet (Shet, Kudtarkar, Nagvekar) Shetiya or Shetty or Shetye Shetye (Berde,Gandhi,Gudekar,Kastur, Gadikar, Lubri,Natekar,Patne,Redij,Tharval,Valanj) Shirdekar Shirgaonkar Shirodkar Shirsat Shivolkar Shivtarkar Shivthare Shroff Sikchi Sinari Sirsikar Sodhani (Dakheda, Dantaal, Dhouli) Sohani Solapurkar Somani (Aasofa, Baagri, Balepota) Soni (Bhanawat ) Soshte Suki Surjan Swar Takale Tamhankar or Tamhnekar Alias Tamhanekar Tamse Tanavde Tanivdekar Tapadya /Taparia (Chhachhya) Tathare Tavate Tawri (Bhakaraeece, Bhojani) Tayshete Telang Teli Tellicherry Thakur Tharval Tilve Tivarekar Todkari Toledar Tolekar Topale Torase Toraskar Toshniwal (Bhakraudya, Chenarya, Daga, Darna, Damdi, Das) Totla Vadkar Vaidya Alias Shirsat Vaireg Valande Valanj or Valanju Valke or Walke Vanjare or Vanjari Varange Vardam Varkekar Varwadkar Vasaikar Vavare Vaykul Vedve Velekar or Velnekar Vengurlekar Verencar or Verekar or Verlekar Vete or Vetekar or Vetkar Vikhare Virnodkar Alias Vidnorkar Wagh Walke Warange

भाइयो मैंने इस लिस्ट में कुछ और जातियों को भी डाला था पर उन्हें अपने आप को वैश्य कहलाने पर ऐतराज हैं. वे अपने आप को क्षत्रिय बताते हैं. इसलिए मैंने उन्हें इस पोस्ट से हटा दिया हैं. जो  आये मन से साथ आये. जबरदस्ती कोई नहीं हैं. धन्यवाद. 


18 comments:

  1. In rajasthan and MP Chittora Vaishya samaj are living and origin of chittorgarh rajasthan

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  13. Thnx me frm gujarat khadayta vaishnav

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  14. Gupta and agrwal is same here or deffrent cast tell me

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    Replies
    1. गुप्त या गुप्ता कोई भी वैश्य हो वो लिख सकता हैं. अग्रवाल वैश्यों में एक जाति हैं वो ही केवल अग्रवाल लिख सकते हैं

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  15. Sir I m chaturseni baniya hu gotra vaidya hai pls tell me history. Mere dadaji khurja ke the.
    Shivankar Gupta agra

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  16. Who are jaiswal(kalwar).
    They are also bania but you didn't mention anywhere

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  17. Gujrati khadayta vanik......this vanik caste is major in gujrat....this caste is proper gujrati vanik caste

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हमारा वैश्य समाज के पाठक और टिप्पणीकार के रुप में आपका स्वागत है! आपके सुझावों से हमें प्रोत्साहन मिलता है कृपया ध्यान रखें: अपनी राय देते समय किसी प्रकार के अभद्र शब्द, भाषा का प्रयॊग न करें।